Correction: African American mitochondrial DNAs often match mtDNAs found in multiple African ethnic groups

  • Bert Ely1Email author,

    Affiliated with

    • Jamie Lee Wilson2,

      Affiliated with

      • Fatimah Jackson3 and

        Affiliated with

        • Bruce A Jackson2

          Affiliated with

          BMC Biology20075:13

          DOI: 10.1186/1741-7007-5-13

          Received: 26 March 2007

          Accepted: 26 March 2007

          Published: 26 March 2007

           

          After the publication of this work [1], we became aware that AFDIL data set used to construct our database of sub-Saharan mtDNA sequences had been mislabelled, and in fact, did not contain Sierra Leone mtDNA sequences. We have obtained the correct Sierra Leone data set from AFDIL, reconstructed the database using the new file, and reanalyzed all of the data. The size of our database was reduced from 3725 to 3717 since the new Sierra Leone data set contained 109 sequences instead of 117 in the mislabelled data set. The swapping of data sets resulted in a cascade of minor corrections to Tables 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 (see below). We also corrected an error in the entry for BAM013 in Table 7. However, the only major change was that there were a number of matches of African-American sequences to sequences in the mislabelled data set. Thus, the number of African-American matches to single ethnic groups dropped from a total of 16 to 9 (Table 3) representing just 5% of the African American sequences that we compared to the database.
          Table 2

          Characteristics of the sub-Saharan mtDNA HVS-I database

          Region

          Region matched (%)

           

          Total

          Uniquea

          Multipleb

          West

          West Central

          South

          Southeast

          East

          West

          1520

          35

          18

          23

          20

          0

          1

          2

          West Central

          995

          35

          28

          16

          14

          0

          5

          2

          South

          127

          39

          15

          0

          0

          39

          7

          0

          Southeast

          416

          25

          54

          2

          17

          1

          1

          0

          East

          659

          52

          14

          1

          2

          0

          0

          30

          Total

          3717

          37

          24

               

          aHaplotypes found once or in a single ethnic group.

          bHaplotypes found in ethnic groups from three or more regions.

          Table 3

          Number of Perfect Matches to African-American HVS-I sequences

           

          Sample

          Number of Matched Ethnic Groups

          Gullah/Geechee

          AFDIL

          None

          30

          43

          1

          5

          4

          2–3

          6

          5

          4–9

          10

          15

          >9

          23

          30

          Totals

          74

          97

          Table 4

          Imperfect matches to the Gullah/Geechee and AFDIL African-American HVS-I sequences

           

          Number of sequences

          Number of ethnic groups matched

          Number of sequences

          One mismatch

          47

          1

          14

            

          2–3

          5

            

          4–9

          16

            

          >9

          12

          More than 1 mismatch

          26

           

          ND

          Table 5

          Geographical source of mtDNA HVS-I matches

          Number of matches

          Gullah/Geechee individuals

          AFDIL African American individuals

           

          W. Africa

          E. Africa

          Both

          W. Africa

          E. Africa

          Both

          1–5

          13

          1

          2

          11

          1

          2

          >5

          4

          0

          24

          5

          0

          33

          Table 6

          Distribution of single region matches

          Sample

          West

          W. Central

          East

          Gullah/Geechee

          7

          5

          1

          AFDIL AA

          2

          3

          1

          Table 7

          Mitochondrial DNA HVS-I sequences included in this study

          Ethnic Group

          Country

          Sample Size

          Reference

          West Africa:

             

          multiple

          Senegal

          50

          Rando et al. 1998 [9]

          Serer

          Senegal

          23

          Rando et al. 1998 [9]

          Wolof

          Senegal

          48

          Rando et al. 1998 [9]

          Mandenka

          Senegal

          110

          Graven et al. 1995 [10] Watson et al. 1997 [11]

          multiple

          Guiné-Bissau

          372

          Rosa et al. 2004 [12]

          Malinke

          Mali

          61

          Ely et al., unpublished

          Bambara

          Mali

          19

          Ely et al., unpublished

          Limba

          Sierra Leone

          67

          Jackson et al. 2005 [3]

          Loko

          Sierra Leone

          29

          Jackson et al. 2005 [3]

          Temne

          Sierra Leone

          121

          Jackson et al. 2005 [3]

          Mende

          Sierra Leone

          59

          Jackson et al. 2005 [3]

          unknown

          Sierra Leone

          108

          Monson et al. 2002 [13]

          Fulbe

          Nigeria, Niger

          60

          Watson et al. 1997 [11]

          Hausa

          Nigeria, Niger

          20

          Watson et al. 1997 [11]

          Kanuri

          Nigeria, Niger

          14

          Watson et al. 1997 [11]

          Songhai

          Nigeria, Niger

          10

          Watson et al. 1997 [11]

          Tuareg

          Nigeria, Niger

          23

          Watson et al. 1997 [11]

          Yoruba

          Nigeria

          33

          Vigilant et al. 1991 [14]; Watson et al. 1997 [11]

          unknown

          Cabo Verde

          292

          Brehm et al. 2002 [15]

          Total

           

          1520

           

          West Central Africa:

             

          Kotoko

          Cameroon

          18

          Černý et al. 2004 [16]

          Hide

          Cameroon

          23

          Černý et al. 2004 [16]

          Masa

          Cameroon

          31

          Černý et al. 2004 [16]

          Mafa

          Cameroon

          32

          Černý et al. 2004 [16]

          Bakaka

          Cameroon

          50

          Coia et al. 2005 [17]

          Bamileke

          Cameroon

          48

          Coia et al. 2005 [17]

          Bassa

          Cameroon

          46

          Coia et al. 2005 [17]

          Daba

          Cameroon

          20

          Coia et al. 2005 [17]

          Ewondo

          Cameroon

          53

          Coia et al. 2005 [17]

          Fali

          Cameroon

          41

          Coia et al. 2005 [17]

          Fulbe

          Cameroon

          34

          Coia et al. 2005 [17]

          Mandara

          Cameroon

          37

          Coia et al. 2005 [17]

          Podokwo

          Cameroon

          39

          Coia et al. 2005 [17]

          Tali

          Cameroon

          20

          Coia et al. 2005 [17]

          Tupuri

          Cameroon

          25

          Coia et al. 2005 [17]

          Uldeme

          Cameroon

          28

          Coia et al. 2005 [17]

          Biaka

          Central African Republic

          17

          Vigilant et al. 1991 [14] Watson et al. 1997 [11]

          Mbenzele-Pygmy

          Central African Republic

          57

          Destro-Bisol et al. 2004 [18]

          Angolares

          São Tomé and Príncipe

          30

          Trovoada et al. 2004 [19]

          Forros

          São Tomé and Príncipe

          35

          Trovoada et al. 2004 [19]

          Tongas

          São Tomé and Príncipe

          38

          Trovoada et al. 2004 [19]

          unknown

          São Tomé and Príncipe

          50

          Mateu et al. 1997 [20]

          Bubi

          Equatorial Guinea

          45

          Mateu et al. 1997 [20]

          Fang

          Equatorial Guinea

          11

          Pinto et al. 1996 [21]

          Mbuti

          Democratic Republic of Congo

          13

          Vigilant et al. 1991 [14] Watson et al. 1997 [11]

          Bantu-speaking

          Cabinda

          110

          Beleza et al. 2005 [4]

          Mbundu

          Angola

          44

          Plaza et al. 2004 [22]

          Total

           

          995

           

          East Africa:

             

          Nuer

          South Sudan

          11

          Krings et al. 1999 [23]

          Dinka

          South Sudan

          47

          Krings et al. 1999 [23]

          Shilluk

          South Sudan

          7

          Krings et al. 1999 [23]

          multiple

          Ethiopia

          21

          Kivisild et al. 2004 [24]

          Tigrais

          Ethiopia, Eritrea

          53

          Kivisild et al. 2004 [24]

          Gurage

          Ethiopia

          21

          Kivisild et al. 2004 [24]

          Afar

          Ethiopia

          16

          Kivisild et al. 2004 [24]

          Amhara

          Ethiopia

          120

          Kivisild et al. 2004 [24]

          Amhara

          Ethiopia

          7

          Quintana-Murci et al. 1999 [25]

          Oromo

          Ethiopia

          33

          Kivisild et al. 2004 [24]

          Oromo

          Kenya, Ethiopia

          18

          Quintana-Murci et al. 1999 [25]

          unknown

          Kenya

          100

          Brandstätter et al. 2004 [26]

          Kikuyu

          Kenya

          24

          Watson et al. 1997 [11]

          Turkana

          Kenya

          37

          Watson et al. 1997 [11]

          Somali

          Kenya, Somalia, Ethiopia

          27

          Watson et al. 1997 [11]

          Hadza

          Tanzania

          17

          Vigilant et al. 1991 [14]

          Hadza

          Tanzania

          49

          Knight et al. 2003 [27]

          Dakota

          Tanzania

          18

          Knight et al. 2003 [27]

          Iraqw

          Tanzania

          12

          Knight et al. 2003 [27]

          Sukuma

          Tanzania

          21

          Knight et al. 2003 [27]

          Total

           

          659

           

          Southeast Africa:

             

          mulitple

          Mozambique

          109

          Pereira et al. 2001 [6]

          multiple

          Mozambique

          307

          Salas et al. 2002 [5]

          Total

           

          416

           

          South Africa:

             

          !Kung

          Botswana

          34

          Vigilant et al. 1991 [14]

          !Kung

          South Africa

          43

          Chen et al. 2000 [28]

          Khwe

          South Africa

          31

          Chen et al. 2000 [28]

          Herero

          Bostwana, Namibia

          19

          Vigilant et al. 1991 [14]

          Total

           

          127

           
          Table 8

          Malinke and Bambara Mitochondrial DNA HVS-I sequences included in this study

          ID

          Ethnicity

          Haplogroup

          Hvs-I polymorphismsa

          BAM676

          Bambara

          L1b

          126 187 189 223 264 270 278 311

          BAM612

          Bambara

          L1b1

          126 187 189 223 256 264 270 278 293 311

          BAM595

          Bambara

          L1b1

          126 187 189 223 264 266 270 278 293 311

          BAM599

          Bambara

          L1b1

          126 187 189 223 264 266 270 278 293 311

          BAM600-2

          Bambara

          L1b1

          126 187 189 223 264 270 278 293 311

          BAM060

          Bambara

          L2a

          223 278 294 368 390

          BAM598

          Bambara

          L2a1

          189 192 209 223 278 294 309 390

          BAM604

          Bambara

          L2a1a

          223 278 286 294 309 390

          BAM627

          Bambara

          L2b

          114A 213 223 278 290 355 390

          BAM659

          Bambara

          L2b1

          114A 129 213 223 278 362 390

          BAM037

          Bambara

          L2c

          129 223 261 278 390

          BAM685

          Bambara

          L2c2

          183 223 264 278 320 390

          BAM679-1

          Bambara

          L2c2

          223 264 278 390

          BAM629

          Bambara

          L2d2

          111A 145 184 223 239 278 292 355 390 399 400

          BAM068

          Bambara

          L3b

          124 223 278 362

          BAM072

          Bambara

          L3e2

          223 284 320

          BAM605

          Bambara

          L3e3

          093 148 223 265 311

          BAM027

          Bambara

          L3f1

          049 129 209 223 292 295 311

          BAM614

          Bambara

          L3f1

          223 272 292 311

          BAM 552

          Malinke

          L1b

          111 126 187 189 223 239 270 278 311

          BAM 237

          Malinke

          L1b

          126 187 189 223 239 264 270 278 311

          BAM 357

          Malinke

          L1b

          126 187 189 223 239 264 270 278 311

          BAM 040

          Malinke

          L1b

          126 187 189 223 264 270 278 311

          BAM 385

          Malinke

          L1b1

          093 126 145 187 189 223 264 270 278 293 311

          BAM 555

          Malinke

          L1b1

          126 187 189 213 223 260 264 270 278 293 311

          BAM 225

          Malinke

          L1b1

          126 187 189 223 264 270 278 293 311 362 400

          BAM 407

          Malinke

          L1c

          129 189 215 223 278 294 311 360

          BAM 013

          Malinke

          L2a

          189 223 278 390

          BAM 397

          Malinke

          L2a

          189 192 223 278 294 390

          BAM 221

          Malinke

          L2a

          189 223 278 294 390

          BAM 426

          Malinke

          L2a

          223 278 286 294 390

          BAM 083

          Malinke

          L2a

          223 278 294 390

          BAM 414

          Malinke

          L2a1

          093 189 192 223 265 278 294 309 390

          BAM 143

          Malinke

          L2a1

          086 223 230 278 294 309 390

          BAM 117

          Malinke

          L2a1

          092 223 278 294 309 390

          BAM 341

          Malinke

          L2a1

          093 223 278 294 309 390

          BAM 534

          Malinke

          L2a1

          140 189 192 223 278 294 309 390

          BAM 665

          Malinke

          L2a1

          189 192 223 266 278 294 309 390

          BAM 082

          Malinke

          L2a1

          189 192 223 278 294 309

          BAM 174

          Malinke

          L2a1

          192 223 278 294 309 390

          BAM 195

          Malinke

          L2a1

          192 223 278 294 309 390

          BAM 395

          Malinke

          L2a1

          223 278 294 309 368 390

          BAM 406

          Malinke

          L2a1

          223 278 294 309 390

          BAM 204

          Malinke

          L2a1

          223 278 309 390

          BAM 296

          Malinke

          L2b1

          056 114A 129 213 223 278 362 390

          BAM 085

          Malinke

          L2b1

          093 114A 129 213 223 278 355 362 390

          BAM 577

          Malinke

          L2b1

          114A 129 213 223 278 311 355 362 390

          BAM 290

          Malinke

          L2b1

          114A 129 213 223 278 362 390

          BAM 319

          Malinke

          L2b1

          114A 129 213 223 278 362 390

          BAM 401

          Malinke

          L2c

          129 223 261 278 362 390

          Authors’ Affiliations

          (1)
          Department of Biological Sciences, University of South Carolina
          (2)
          Biomedical Engineering and Biotechnology Program, University of Massachusetts
          (3)
          Department of Anthropology, University of Maryland

          References

          1. Ely B, Wilson JL, Jackson F, Jackson BA: African American mitochondrial DNAs often match mtDNAs found in multiple African ethnic groups. BMC Biology 2006, 4:34.View ArticlePubMed

          Copyright

          © Ely et al. 2007

          This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://​creativecommons.​org/​licenses/​by/​2.​0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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