Secretory perturbations affect yeast physiology. (a) Final recombinant protein titer. Δhac1 strains were severely inhibited in recombinant secretion. (b) Specific growth rate on glucose. The combination of Δhac1 and recombinant secretion had the most severe effect on growth, however even in wild-type background, α-amylase hindered growth. (c) Final cell concentration. Wild-type, no protein secretion (WN), wild-type insulin precursor secretion (WI), wild-type α-amylase secretion (WA), Δhac1 no protein secretion (dN), Δhac1 insulin precursor secretion (dI), Δhac1 α-amylase secretion (dA). Measurements are mean +/- s.e.m. (n = 3).