Macondo crude Oil exposure impaired escape behavior by 48 hpf. (A) Individual frames from high-speed video recordings are shown for control larvae. The images are overlaid in 20 mS intervals and the duration of the response captured within the field is indicated. (B) Kinematics traces are shown for 10 escape responses each for control larvae. 0° indicates a strait body and positive and negative angles represent body bends in opposite directions. The time is indicated in seconds. (C) Image overlays for a WAF-treated larva escape response illustrates the failure to clear the field that was frequently observed. (D) Kinematic traces for WAF-treated larvae reveal reduced, abnormal body bend frequencies. (E) Quantification of body bend frequencies. (F) Quantification of the duration of escape responses reveals that WAF-treated larvae respond for shorter periods of time. Asterisks in E and F indicate statistically significant differences (n = 10, P < 0.01).