Phylogeny based on combined maximum likelihood analyses of COI, EF-1α and Wingless gene sequences. The tree from gene-partitioned Bayesian analysis was identical in topology. Maximum likelihood bootstrap/Bayesian posterior probabilities shown for each node when greater than 50%. Values less than 50% indicated by -. Microhabitat specialization indicated by vertical bars. Brackets indicate terminal sister pairs of genera from the same host group but of different microhabitation specializations. Avian host group indicated using the first two to four letters of the host order or family (see Table 1).