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Table 1 Stylopodial scaling in mammals and non-avian reptiles.

From: A universal scaling relationship between body mass and proximal limb bone dimensions in quadrupedal terrestrial tetrapods

Analysis
(xvs. y)
Sample N m m95% CI b 95% +CI R2 Sim.
LF vs. CF All 234 1.0301 1.0616 to 0.9996 -0.6020 -0.542 to -0.6619 0.9459 G
  Mammalia 188 1.0332 1.0677 to 0.9999 -0.6148 -0.5469 to -0.6827 0.9484 G
  Reptilia 46 1.1751 1.3184 to 1.0474 -0.8115 -0.5884 to -1.0347 0.8560 > G, < E
  Ungulata 32 1.2014 1.3338 to 1.0821 -0.9810 -0.6676 to -1.2943 0.9211 > G, < E
  Carnivora 46 0.9840 1.0888 to 0.8893 -0.5409 -0.3317 to -0.75 0.8887 G
  Marsupialia 14 1.0774 1.1467 to 1.0123 -0.7317 -0.6057 to -0.8577 0.9902 > G, < E
  Euarchonta 14 1.0251 1.2141 to 0.8656 -0.7382 -0.3835 to -1.0929 0.9269 G
  Glires 66 0.9542 1.0334 to 0.8811 -0.4716 -0.3454 to -0.5979 0.8978 G
LH vs. CH All 234 1.0644 1.0971 to 1.0326 -0.6229 -0.5626 to -0.6831 0.9452 > G, < E
  Mammalia 187 1.0603 1.0967 to 1.0252 -0.6199 -0.5511 to -0.6887 0.9459 > G, < E
  Reptilia 47 1.2190 1.3355 to 1.1126 -0.8536 -0.6724 to -1.0348 0.9072 > G, < E
  Ungulata 32 1.3083 1.4325 to 1.1949 -1.1391 -0.8529 to -1.4254 0.9407 > G, < E
  Carnivora 46 1.0814 1.1777 to 0.9929 -0.7101 -0.5193 to -0.9009 0.9209 G
  Marsupialia 14 1.0472 1.187 to 0.9238 -0.6059 -0.3774 to -0.8343 0.9601 G
  Euarchonta 14 0.9175 1.0816 to 0.7782 -0.4785 -0.1826 to -0.7744 0.9309 G
  Glires 66 0.9296 0.9931 to 0.8702 -0.4116 -0.3166 to -0.5066 0.9300 G
LF vs. BM All 234 2.9307 3.0323 to 2.8325 -2.1677 -1.9744 to -2.3611 0.9306 G
  Mammalia 188 2.9930 3.0974 to 2.8922 -2.3410 -2.1359 to -2.5461 0.9439 G
  Reptilia 46 3.2500 3.7486 to 2.8177 -2.4800 -1.7132 to -3.2468 0.7778 G
  Ungulata 32 3.4979 3.8785 to 3.1545 -3.4591 -2.5578 to -4.3603 0.9230 > G, < E
  Carnivora 46 2.7472 3.0791 to 2.451 -1.8012 -1.1427 to -2.4597 0.8584 G
  Marsupialia 14 2.9980 3.4286 to 2.6215 -2.4690 -1.7121 to -3.2258 0.9542 G
  Euarchonta 14 3.0622 3.7695 to 2.4877 -2.9486 -1.6443 to -4.253 0.8893 G
  Glires 66 2.7702 2.9779 to 2.5769 -1.9621 -1.6297 to -2.2944 0.9160 0
CF vs. BM All 247 2.8479 2.8997 to 2.7969 -0.4587 -0.3845 to -0.5328 0.9794 < G, > E
  Mammalia 200 2.8977 2.9504 to 2.8459 -0.5615 -0.4829 to -0.64 0.9834 < G, > E
  Reptilia 47 2.7943 2.9801 to 2.6201 -0.2653 -0.057 to -0.4736 0.9540 E
  Ungulata 41 2.9204 3.1192 to 2.7344 -0.6173 -0.232 to -1.0027 0.9586 G
  Carnivora 48 2.7893 2.9182 to 2.6661 -0.2895 -0.0946 to -0.4844 0.9768 E
  Marsupialia 14 2.7827 3.1222 to 2.4801 -0.4328 -0.0138 to -0.8518 0.9664 G, E, S
  Euarchonta 15 2.9728 3.1874 to 2.7727 -0.7271 -0.4393 to -1.0149 0.9864 G
  Glires 66 2.9031 3.084 to 2.7328 -0.5929 -0.3965 to -0.7893 0.9413 G
LH vs. BM All 234 2.8653 2.9489 to 2.7841 -1.8284 -1.6745 to -1.9823 0.9506 0
  Mammalia 187 2.8626 2.9522 to 2.7756 -1.8476 -1.6778 to -2.0175 0.9548 0
  Reptilia 47 3.3718 3.704 to 3.0694 -2.5472 -2.0315 to -3.0629 0.9018 > G, < E
  Ungulata 32 3.4092 3.8036 to 3.0558 -2.9639 -2.0630 to -3.8648 0.9135 > G, < E
  Carnivora 46 2.8202 3.0641 to 2.5957 -1.8667 -1.3831 to -2.3503 0.9253 G
  Marsupialia 14 3.1988 3.6508 to 2.8027 -2.3972 -1.6611 to -3.1333 0.9556 G
  Euarchonta 14 2.5359 2.9736 to 2.1627 -1.6484 -0.8577 to -2.4391 0.9354 0
  Glires 66 2.6071 2.766 to 2.4573 -1.3946 -1.1559 to -1.6332 0.9438 0
CH vs. BM All 247 2.6861 2.7322 to 2.6406 -0.1438 -0.0788 to -0.2087 0.9816 E
  Mammalia 200 2.6938 2.7445 to 2.6439 -0.1655 -0.0913 to -0.2398 0.9823 E
  Reptilia 47 2.7661 2.9296 to 2.6117 -0.1862 -0.0049 to -0.3675 0.9634 E
  Ungulata 41 2.5273 2.7222 to 2.3464 0.1672 0.544 to -0.2097 0.9473 E
  Carnivora 48 2.5959 2.7027 to 2.4933 -0.0012 0.1613 to -0.1637 0.9815 E, S
  Marsupialia 14 3.0547 3.4219 to 2.7269 -0.5465 -0.1208 to -0.9721 0.9673 G
  Euarchonta 15 2.7558 2.9725 to 2.5548 -0.3168 -0.0345 to -0.5992 0.9840 E
  Glires 66 2.8045 2.9447 to 2.671 -0.2403 -0.0986 to -0.3819 0.9618 < G, > E
LF vs. LH All 233 1.0246 1.0469 to 1.0027 -0.1206 -0.0778 to -0.1634 0.9723 -
  Mammalia 187 1.0450 1.0682 to 1.0223 -0.1707 -0.1248 to -0.2166 0.9771 -
  Reptilia 46 0.9644 1.0644 to 0.8739 0.0190 0.176 to -0.1379 0.8943 -
  Ungulata 32 1.0260 1.107 to 0.9509 -0.1452 0.0491 to -0.3395 0.9584 -
  Carnivora 46 0.9741 1.0283 to 0.9227 0.0232 0.1338 to -0.0874 0.9682 -
  Marsupialia 14 0.9372 1.1182 to 0.7856 -0.0224 0.2894 to -0.3344 0.9204 -
  Euarchonta 14 1.2075 1.4238 to 1.0241 -0.5127 -0.106 to -0.9195 0.9307 -
  Glires 66 1.0625 1.1019 to 1.0246 -0.2177 -0.1536 to -0.2818 0.9788 -
CH+F vs. BM All 247 2.7779 2.8191 to 2.7374 -1.1564 -1.086 to -1.2267 0.9863 -
  Mammalia 200 2.8071 2.8495 to 2.7654 -1.2289 -1.1541 to -1.3037 0.9886 -
  Reptilia 47 2.7933 2.9496 to 2.6452 -1.0833 -0.8636 to -1.3031 0.9671 -
  Ungulata 41 2.7319 2.8959 to 2.5773 -1.0660 -0.6989 to -1.4331 0.9676 -
  Carnivora 48 2.6921 2.7969 to 2.5911 -0.9568 -0.7669 to -1.1466 0.9834 -
  Marsupialia 14 2.9125 3.1855 to 2.6628 -1.3738 -0.9658 to -1.7817 0.9797 -
  Euarchonta 15 2.8692 3.0561 to 2.6937 -1.3928 -1.0911 to -1.6946 0.9889 -
  Glires 66 2.8850 3.0113 to 2.764 -1.3260 -1.1561 to -1.4960 0.9705 -
  1. Standardized Major Axis equation shown in the format y = mx + b. The particular theoretical scaling model (Sim.) followed by the slope is represented by G, geometric similarity, E, elastic similarity, or S, static similarity. Scaling patterns that fall between models are represented by > or <, and those that do not follow any pattern (that is, above or below all predicted models) are represented by a 0. BM, body mass; CF, femoral circumference; CH, humeral circumference; CH+F, total humeral and femoral circumference; CI, confidence interval; LF, femoral length; LH, humeral length.