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Table 5 Anticancer drugs and the hypertolerant phenotype of yeast strains heterozygous for the HP gene encoding their target protein

From: Copy-number variation of cancer-gene orthologs is sufficient to induce cancer-like symptoms in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

Drug Concentration in solid medium (uM) Concentration in liquid medium (uM) Mode of action Specific HP genetic target (yeast/human) Hyper-tolerant yeast strains Cancer in which CNV-reduction of the gene deleted in the hypertolerant strain occurs
     RAD54/RAD54L   
Cycloheximide 0.36, 1.8 0.1 Inhibition of translation RIM11/GSK3B IRR1/irr1 -
Mitoxantrone 10, 25 - TOPII inhibition TOP2/TOP2A - -
      NBP2/nbp2  
      GPD1/gpd1 Serous adenocarcinoma (NBP2)
Methotrexate 200 2, 100 Inhibition of nucleoside and purine synthesis MET7/FPGS RIM11/rim11 Renal cell carcinoma (GPD1)
Phleomycin 1, 2 0.1, 0.5 DNA strand break induction - MET7/met7 Serous adenocarcinoma
5-fluorouracil 200 2, 100 Inhibition of pyrimidine synthesis - IDP1/idp1 -
Tamoxifen 25 - Estrogen receptor antagonist - - -
      NBP2/nbp2  
Aminopterin 10 0.1,1, 5, 10, 50, 100 Inhibition of DNA, RNA & protein synthesis - TOP1/top1 Serous adenocarcinoma
SAHA/vorinostat 10, 20 - Histone deacetylase inhibition RPD3/HDAC2 - -
Bay 11-7085 20, 40 - NF-kB TF inhibitior; proapoptotic agent - - -
Cantharidin 30, 60 6, 30 Inhibition of PP2A TPD3 UBX4/ubx4 -
PD98059 (2'-amino-3'-methylflavone) 40, 80 4 MEK1 MAPK inhibition PBS2/MAP2K1 NBP2/nbp2 Serous adenocarcinoma
      HRK1/hrk1  
      MLH1/mlh1  
Hydroxyurea 100000, 200000 100, 1000 Inhibition of DNA synthesis; DSB induction RAD54/RAD54L STP22/stp22 Renal cell carcinoma (MLH1)
Lithium chloride   - Alternative RIM11 inhibitor RIM11/GSK3B -  
Caffeine 1000, 5000 - Alternative RAD54 inhibitor RAD54/RAD54L -  
Methyl methanesulfonate   - DNA methylation, causing DSB or stalled replication forks - -  
DPI 10, 20 - NAD(P)H oxidase inhibition - -  
Tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP)   - Free-radical generation - -  
Clotrimazole 2.5, 5, 7.5 - Antifungal; increases cell wall permeability - -