Effect of DMBA/TPA carcinogenic applications on Spalax and mice skin . Macroscopic and microscopic skin changes in Spalax (A) and mice (B). (A) Normal tissues (left images). Necrosis of skin and subcutaneous adipose tissue (middle images). Completely healed skin lesion showing epidermal thickening with hyperkeratosis and dermal fibrosis (right images). Hematoxylin and eosin staining, ×40 (left and middle images) and ×100 (right image). (B) Normal tissues (left images). Intra-epidermal blisters, partially ruptured with erosion formation and crusting, congestion and inflammatory cell infiltrate within the dermis indicate ongoing inflammation (middle images). Skin papillary outgrowths with thickened, dysplastic epidermis, numerous mitoses and foci are suggestive of squamous cell carcinoma (right image). Hematoxylin and eosin staining, ×40 (left and middle images) and ×100 (right image). DMBA/TPA, 7,12-Dimethylbenz(a) anthracene/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate.