Change in Vascular endothelial growth factor-related gene expression following endurance training. Values are -fold changes in human skeletal muscle gene expression (mean ± SE) following six weeks of aerobic training. Gene expression was determined using real-time quantitative PCR. Following six weeks training (n = 24), the eight highest and eight lowest responders to exercise training were identified using the sum of (a) the percent improvement in maximal aerobic capacity, (b) the percent reduction in submaximal heart rate during 15 min fixed-workload, submaximal cycling and (c) the percent improvement in work done during a 15 min maximal cycling test. This ranking was carried out before any genomic analysis was carried out. The training responses were evaluated by two-way ANOVA and Bonferoni post-hoc tests. * indicates p < 0.05, ** indicates p < 0.01 and *** indicates p < 0.001.