Regulation of translation and cell size by the TOR network. (A) Protein synthesis and mean cell volumes are plotted, as percentage of controls. The white number at the base of each pair of bars indicates the number of experiments performed and analyzed for each RNAi treatment. (B) Inhibition of TOR blocks protein synthesis before affecting cell size. Cells were pretreated with rapamycin or DMSO (control) for 20 minutes prior to addition of 3H-amino acids for a 3-hour translation assay. Translation was markedly reduced in rapamycin-treated cells, while cell size remained normal. (C) Co-treatment with dsATG5 or dsATG7 was unable to rescue cell size in dsRheb-treated or dsTOR-treated cells. Cells were pretreated 72 hours with dsATG5, dsATG7, or dsGFP as control to deplete cells of ATG proteins, then the cells were treated with both listed dsRNAs for an additional 72-hour period to determine if loss of autophagy could rescue the cell size. Error bars represent the standard deviations.