Rheb, PI3K, and PTEN modulate translation in Drosophila larvae. Representative experiments in which the indicated gene was overexpressed in whole third instar, pre-wandering larvae using the hsFLP/Gal4-UAS system of induction 20 hrs prior to the translation assay. Gray bars represent means as a percentage of the control mean. (A) Rheb overexpression in fed larvae drives protein synthesis. (B) Overexpressed Rheb promotes protein synthesis in larvae starved of protein for 32 hrs prior to, and during, induction. (C) Dp110, the catalytic subunit of Drosophila PI3K, also promotes translation, whereas PTEN, a negative regulator in the insulin/PI3K pathway, inhibits translation. Error bars indicate the standard deviations of the mean.