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Table 3 Estimated divergence times for major avian clades compared across methods and topologies. Estimated time to most recent common ancestor (tMRCA) of clades of non-controversial monophyletic status. Standard deviations are given in parentheses (for Dating5 and BEAST, standard deviations were calculated from 95% confidence/credibility intervals using a normal approximation). For r8s, PATHd8 and Multidivtime ages were estimated on each of the two fixed topologies (T Consensus and T Optimal). For BEAST, divergence times were estimated simultaneously with phylogeny (T Flexible). For each method an estimate of the magnitude of disagreement between fossil and molecular estimates of divergence times (δ Realized MA-FA ) is calculated as an average of MA-FA (the molecular age minus the fossil age) for those 18 internal nodes with calibration points.

From: Strong mitochondrial DNA support for a Cretaceous origin of modern avian lineages

   r8s PATHd8 Multidivtime Dating5 BEAST
Node tMRCA T Consensus T Optimal T Consensus T Optimal T Consensus T Optimal T Optimal T Flexible
A Neognaths-Paleognaths 125.7 (12.4) 131.1 (10.7) 114.3 (6.9) 102.8 (6.1) 129.9 (11.0) 132.4 (10.7) 132.9 (11.6) 133.2 (8.1)
B Paleognaths 98.1 (10.6) 104.8 (10.7) 72.8 (5.0) 66.3 (4.6) 107.6 (11.2) 110.1 (11.2) 80 (6.8) 105.9 (11.7)
C Galloanserae 93.6 (10.7) 100.7 (10.1) 86.4 (5.5) 78.7 (4.7) 97.3 (9.9) 100.6 (9.5) 89.3 (3.2) 110.4 (7.8)
D Galloanserae-Neoaves 114.6 (12.1) 121.9 (10.5) 103.1 (6.0) 93.1 (5.4) 116.1 (11.0) 120.8 (10.5) 126.8 (6.1) 126.0 (7.1)
E Neoaves 104.5 (11.4) 116.6 (9.9) 90.4 (5.1) 86.1 (5.0) 101.3 (10.1) 113.4 (10.1) 123.9 (5.3) 118.5 (6.8)
F Ratites 67.4 (9.6) 89.3 (12.1) 49.5 (3.5) 46.7 (3.2) 92.1 (10.3) 97.3 (10.4) 40.6 (12.3) 91.5 (12.0)
G Galliformes 82.1 (9.7) 88.4 (9.4) 82.2 (6.0) 73.2 (5.4) 87.4 (9.5) 87.2 (9.2) 67.3 (11.3) 99.0 (8.4)
H Anseriformes 82.7 (10.1) 89.1 (10.7) 70.6 (4.0) 67.1 (2.8) 88.5 (9.3) 91.5 (9.0) 85.4 (4.1) 100.5. (8.3)
I Charadriiformes 81.8 (11.5) 94.0 (9.2) 55.4 (3.6) 49.9 (3.1) 80.2 (8.5) 80.6 (7.8) 41.9 (4.5) 81.7 (6.3)
J Passeriformes 85.4 (9.1) 99.5 (8.2) 89.0 (5.5) 85.5 (5.2) 78.4 (8.5) 97.8 (9.3) 84.9 (12.5) 106.6 (7.2)
K Piciformes 90.9 (10.1) 99.6 (9.0) 89.0 (5.5) 79.0 (4.8) 83.0 (9.2) 91.1 (9.1) 101.0 (8.8) 93.6 (6.8)
L Procellariiformes 73.8 (10.8) 89.9 (9.1) 55.6 (2.2) 38.1 (2.8) 80.0 (8.7) 78.5 (7.8) 38.8 (12.4) 74.7 (7.3)
M Cuculiformes 73.9 (8.3) 79.5 (7.4) 65.0 (4.4) 60.1 (4.1) 68.3 (8.0) 74.3 (8.0) 52.5 (6.7) 74.1 (8.6)
N Strigiformes 88.2 (9.9) 94.7 (8.6) 89.0 (5.9) 79.0 (5.1) 82.5 (9.7) 88.5 (9.4) 93.2 (11.5) 84.2 (9.1)
O Apodiformes 77.4 (9.3) 75.1 (7.4) 70.0 (5.6) 53.5 (1.9) 77.3 (9.0) 63.4 (7.2) 55.8 (9.1) 80.5 (9.9)
  δ Realized MA-FA 39.8 44.6 24.2 16.9 36.8 36.1 24.8 36.5