Flight direction and orientation do not differ between male and female migrants. A. R-values of flight direction were similar between treatment groups (vehicle = blue; methoprene-treated = red) and between sexes. B. Mean orientation of all directional butterflies did not differ between males and females (p > 0.05). The data were standardized to orientation relative to LD for both the LD and the 6-hr phase delayed LD groups to directly compare orientation of all the animals of each sex used for the studies in Figure 2.