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Table 3 Relative rate tests for comparing the molecular evolutionary rate of 16S rRNA gene among the lineages of the symbionts of acanthosomatid stinkbugs, symbionts of plataspid stinkbugs, endocellular symbionts of aphids, and their free-living relatives.

From: Host-symbiont co-speciation and reductive genome evolution in gut symbiotic bacteria of acanthosomatid stinkbugs

Lineage 1a Lineage 2a Outgroupb K1c K2d Difference of distancee Rate ratiof P valueg
Gut symbionts of acanthosomatid stinkbugs Gut symbionts of plataspid stinkbugs S-symbiont of psyllid Anomoneura mori 0.068 0.081 -0.013 0.84 0.31
Gut symbionts of acanthosomatid stinkbugs Buchnera aphidicola of aphids S-symbiont of psyllid Anomoneura mori 0.065 0.093 -0.028 0.70 0.17
Gut symbionts of plataspid stinkbugs Buchnera aphidicola of aphids S-symbiont of psyllid Anomoneura mori 0.094 0.109 -0.015 0.86 0.30
Gut symbionts of acanthosomatid stinkbugs Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi Yersinia pestis 0.103 0.033 0.070 3.1 < 0.0001
Gut symbionts of plataspid stinkbugs Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi Yersinia pestis 0.163 0.030 0.133 5.4 < 0.0001
Buchnera aphidicola of aphids Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi Yersinia pestis 0.187 0.029 0.158 6.4 < 0.0001
  1. aAcanthosomatid symbionts from E. nubilus (AB368822), E. humeralis (AB368823, AB368824, AB368825), E. brevis (AB368826), L. gramineus (AB368827), E. putoni (AB368828), E. dorsalis (AB368829), E. signoreti (AB368830), S. esakii (AB368831, AB368832), S. scutellata (AB368833), A. haemorrhoidale (AB368834, AB368835), A. labiduroides (AB368836), A. forficula (AB368837), A. denticaudum (AB368838), A. giganteum (AB368839). Plataspid symbionts from Megacopta punctatissima (AB067723), Brachyplatys subaeneus (AB244767), and Coptosoma sphaerula (AB240162). Aphid symbionts from Geoica urticularia (AJ296751), Yamatocallis tokyoensis (AB064507) and Acyrthosiphon pisum (M27039). E. coli (J01695) and Salmonella typhi (U00545).
  2. bS-symbiont of psyllid A. mori (AF013087); Y. pestis (AE013602).
  3. cEstimated mean distance between lineage 1 and the last common ancestor of lineages 1 and 2.
  4. dEstimated mean distance between lineage 2 and the last common ancestor of lineages 1 and 2.
  5. eK1–K2.
  6. fK1/K2.
  7. g P value based on the null distribution of distance values generated by 10,000 bootstrap resamplings of the aligned nucleotide sites.