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Table 4 Relative rate tests for comparing the molecular evolutionary rate of groEL gene (nucleotide 1st, 2nd positions of codon) among the lineages of the symbionts of acanthosomatid stinkbugs, symbionts of plataspid stinkbugs, endocellular symbionts of aphids, and their free-living relatives.

From: Host-symbiont co-speciation and reductive genome evolution in gut symbiotic bacteria of acanthosomatid stinkbugs

Lineage 1a Lineage 2a Outgroupb K1c K2d Difference of distancee Rate ratiof P valueg
Gut symbionts of acanthosomatid stinkbugs Gut symbionts of plataspid stinkbugs Closely related endosymbionts 0.034 0.065 -0.031 0.52 0.0170
Gut symbionts of acanthosomatid stinkbugs Buchnera aphidicola of aphids Closely related endosymbionts 0.036 0.096 -0.060 0.38 0.0002
Gut symbionts of plataspid stinkbugs Buchnera aphidicola of aphids Closely related endosymbionts 0.056 0.084 -0.028 0.67 0.0884
Gut symbionts of acanthosomatid stinkbugs Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi Vibrio cholerae 0.090 0.018 0.072 5.0 < 0.0001
Gut symbionts of plataspid stinkbugs Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi Vibrio cholerae 0.111 0.011 0.100 10.1 < 0.0001
Buchnera aphidicola of aphids Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi Vibrio cholerae 0.177 0.0 0.177 N.D.h < 0.0001
  1. aAcanthosomatid symbionts from E. nubilus (AB379694), E. putoni (AB379695), S. esakii (AB379696). Plataspid symbionts from Megacopta punctatissima (AB231904) and Megacopta cribraria (AB264337). Aphid symbionts from Acyrthosiphon pisum (NC_002528), Schizaphis graminum (NC_004061), Baizongia pistaciae (NC_004545) and Cinara cedri (NC_008513). E. coli (X07850) and Salmonella typhi (U01039).
  2. bClosely related endosymbionts from Wigglesworthia glossinidia from tsetse Glossina brevipalpis (AF321516), Blochmannia floridanus from ant Camponotus floridanus (BX248583), Baumannia cicadellinicola from sharpshooter Homalodisca coagulata (CP000238). Vibrio cholerae (AE013602).
  3. cEstimated mean distance between lineage 1 and the last common ancestor of lineages 1 and 2.
  4. dEstimated mean distance between lineage 2 and the last common ancestor of lineages 1 and 2.
  5. eK1–K2.
  6. fK1/K2.
  7. g P value based on the null distribution of distance values generated by 10,000 bootstrap resamplings of the aligned nucleotide sites.
  8. hDivided by 0.