Skip to main content


Figure 6 | BMC Biology

Figure 6

From: Specific retention of the protostome-specific PsGEF may parallel with the evolution of mushroom bodies in insect and lophotrochozoan brains

Figure 6

Morphology of alpha/beta lobes and alpha/beta neurons in mushroom bodies of the wild-type and the dmPsGEF Δ21 mutant. The alpha lobes detected by Fas II staining are thinner in the dmPsGEF Δ21mutants (B) than in the wild-type (A). The alpha and beta lobes are indicated by arrows in (A). The alpha lobes of late-born alpha/beta neurons are visualized by 201Y-Gal4 and UAS-mCD8::GFP in the wild-type (C) and dmPsGEF Δ21mutants (D and E). The alpha lobes are thinner in dmPsGEF Δ21mutant than in the wild-type, as observed above. In addition, the alpha lobes are often short (magenta arrowhead in D), and their positions along the beta lobes vary (white arrowheads in D and E). The alpha as well as the beta and gamma lobes are indicated by arrows in (C). Findings of the repressible cell marker analysis reveal that the axons of wild-type alpha/beta neurons (green) bifurcated toward the alpha/beta lobes (magenta) (F). However, the axons of dmPsGEF Δ21alpha/beta neurons (green) often fail to grow toward the alpha lobes (G and H). The alpha and beta lobes are indicated by arrows in (F).

Back to article page