Natural beating movements of the flagella of the three pairs of maxillipeds in the crab Carcinus restrained under water. Individual frames from sequences captured at 1000 s-1 are arranged in two columns, with each sequence starting with a power stroke (abduction) movement of maxilliped 3. The panels accompanying each frame are drawings of the positions of each flagellum (colour coded as in Figure 1) with the arrows indicating their direction of movement. (A) The camera pointed into the oral cavity of a female crab with a carapace width of 45 mm. The eyecups, antennules and antennae are visible at the top. (B) A closer view of the oral cavity of a second female crab (carapace width 61 mm) viewed from a more ventral perspective. Scale bars 5 mm.