Effects of epinastine on appetitive visual pattern conditioning. Two groups of animals were injected with 3 μl of saline or saline containing 1 μM epinastine 30 min before appetitive visual pattern conditioning. The retention test was performed 1 day after conditioning. Preference indexes for rewarded pattern before (white bars) and after (black bars) conditioning are shown with means + SEM. The results of statistical comparison before and after conditioning (Wilcoxon's test) and between experimental and saline-injected control groups (Mann-Whitney test) are shown as asterisks (* P < 0.05; ** P < 0.01; NS P > 0.05).