Effects of period (per) and cycle (cyc) RNA interference on ovarian development in Riptortus pedestris. The experimental schedules are shown as horizontal hatched bars (short-day conditions) or open bars (long-day conditions). Arrowheads show the days of adult emergence and arrows show the days of dissection. Insects were maintained continuously under short-day conditions (a), transferred from long-day to short-day conditions (b), maintained continuously under long-day conditions (c) or transferred from short-day to long-day conditions (d). Bars with the same letters are not significantly different (Tukey-type multiple comparisons for proportions, P > 0.05).