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Table 1 Oral vaccines associated with diminished immunogenicity or efficacy in developing country populations

From: Immunogenicity and efficacy of oral vaccines in developing countries: lessons from a live cholera vaccine

Oral vaccine Target ages at which diminished immunogenicity or protection was observed Geographic locations where observed References
Sabin polio vaccine strains Infants, toddlers, preschool children, school-age children India, sub-Saharan Africa [2533]
RIT 4237 rotavirus Infants Gambia [36]
Rotashield rotavirus vaccine (104 plaque forming unit dosage) Infants Brazil and Peru [37, 125]
Rotarix attenuated rotavirus Infants Malawi, South Africa, Bangladesh [38]
Rotateq pentavalent attenuated rotavirus Infants Ghana, Kenya, Mali [39]
MMU18006 (monovalent Rhesus rotavirus strain) Infants Pakistan [40]
CVD 103-HgR live cholera strain 24-59 months; 5-9 years; adults Indonesia, Thailand, Peru, Ecuador [4143, 64]
Dukoral non-living cholera vaccine (killed V. cholerae O1 plus B subunit) 1-12 years Nicaragua [45]
SC602 attenuated Shigella flexneri strain Toddlers and school age children Bangladesh [46, 47]