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Table 1 Taxonomic distribution of gene duplications, focusing on eight developmental pathwaysa

From: 2R and remodeling of vertebrate signal transduction engine

Taxon GPCRs Hedgehog JAK/STAT pathway NHRs NOTCH RTKs TGF-β WNT Sum for eight pathways All genes
Kingdom and related           
   Metazoa 31 2 - - 4 5 10 5 57 182
Bilateria 503 31 12 16 54 187 59 86 948 3,313
Phyla and subphyla  
   Chordata 129 3 5 1 9 34 10 25 216 1,171
Vertebrata 1,327 34 76 38 56 299 66 145 2,041 7,701
Superclass, class, subclass  
   Tetrapoda 85 - 4 1 2 6 1 1 100 500
   Amniota 74 - 1 1 1 5 1 1 84 367
   Mammalia 164 - 2 3 - 3 1 4 177 725
   Theria 272 - 1 1 1 - - 2 277 764
   Eutheria 261 - 5 7 1 5 2 4 285 1,933
Superorder, order, infraorder           
   Catarrhini 69 - - - 1 4 1 2 77 1,478
   Clupeocephala 102 1 - - 9 21 2 12 147 3,268
   Laurasiatheria 23 - - - - - - - 23 111
   Smegmamorpha 3 - - - - - - - 3 91
Family, subfamily, genus           
   Ciona 21 - - - - 2 - - 23 1,242
   Hominidae 62 - - - - 3 1 1 67 628
   Murinae 356 - 6 5 - 3 1 - 371 1,184
   Percomorpha 15 - - - - 2 - 1 18 1,479
   Tetraodontidae 2 - - - - - - - 2 471
Species           
   Bos taurus 15 - - - 1 1 - - 17 2,472
   Canis familiaris 222 - - - - - - - 222 1,122
   Ciona intestinalis 1 - - - - - - - 1 2,041
   Ciona savignyi - - - - - - - - - 736
   Danio rerio 96 3 - - 3 5 - 2 109 4,076
   Fugu rubripes 6 - - - - - - - 6 1425
   Gallus gallus 8 - - - - - - - 8 1,075
   Gasterosteus aculeatus - - - - - - - - - 1,298
   Homo sapiens 31 - 1 - - 3 1 1 37 1,010
   Macaca mulatta 5 - - - - - - - 5 1,504
   Monodelphis domestica 5 - - - - - - - 5 2,363
   Mus musculus 214 - - - 3 3 - 1 221 2,125
   Ornithorhynchus anatinus 182 - - - - 1 - 1 184 1,031
   Oryzias latipes 7 - - - - - - - 7 1,097
   Pan troglodytes 1 - - - - - - - 1 231
   Rattus norvegicus 263 - 1 3 - - - 2 269 3,112
   Tetraodon nigroviridis - - - - - - - - - 1,749
   Xenopus tropicalis - - - - - - - - - 2,617
  1. aPhylogenetic timing associates Vertebrata and Bilateria with the highest numbers of duplications (in bold). Total associated with a given taxon is given in the last column and underlined. Table rows are sorted according to taxonomic ranks (kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species). Duplication numbers for all components of the eight selected pathways are given. GPCRs, G protein-coupled receptors; JAK/STAT, Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription; nuclear hormone receptors (NHRs); RTKs, receptor tyrosine kinases; TGF-β, transforming growth factor-β.