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Table 8 Duplication triads and patterns of expression subfunctionalisation and neofunctionalisationa

From: 2R and remodeling of vertebrate signal transduction engine

Triad expression Tetrapoda and younger Chordata 2ROs Evolutionary interpretation
b: b &b 0 6 56 Ancestral expression conservation (b)
b: nb & b 5 11 123 Subfunctionalisation through loss of PBE in one duplicate
b: nb & nb 7 12 133 Gain or loss independent of gene duplication
Conservation/sub 0/5 = 0 6/11 = 0.55 56/123 = 0.46 Relative rate of subfunctionalisation
nb: b & b 1 3 18 Gain or loss independent of gene duplication
nb: nb & b 7 11 58 Neofunctionalisation through gain of PBE in one duplicate
nb: nb & nb 12 9 78 Ancestral expression conservation (nb)
Conservation/neo 12/7 = 1.71 9/11 = 0.82 78/58 = 1.34 Relative rate of neofunctionalisation
Sub/neo ratio 5/7 = 0.71 11/11 = 1 123/58 = 2.12 Ratio of sub- to neofunctionalisation
  1. aWe quantified triads depending on brain expression status of a pair of human duplicated genes mapped to unique fly ortholog, depending on timing of duplication ("b" denotes PBE, "nb" denotes lack thereof). PBE, preferential brain expression.