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Table 1 Non-retroviral integrated RNA viruses in eukaryotic genomes.

From: Taming of the shrewd: novel eukaryotic genes from RNA viruses

Host Virus Gene(s) Transcription References
Fungi     
Candida parapsilosis Totivirus (dsRNA) related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae L-A
(L1) virus
Capsid protein (CP) Not tested [1]
Debaryomyces hansenii Totivirus (dsRNA) related to S. cerevisiae L-A
(L1) virus; M2 killer virus (unclassified dsRNA virus)
CP, RdRp; apparently complete viral genome with overlapping CP and RdRp genes as in L1 virus; an extra copy of the CP gene; 4 copies of K2 toxin gene RdRp but not Cp transcripts detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) [1, 13]
Penicillium marneffei Totivirus (dsRNA) related to S. cerevisiae L-A
(L1) virus
CP, RdRp; apparently complete viral genome with overlapping CP and RdRp genes as in L1 virus Not tested [1]
Pichia stipitus Totivirus (dsRNA) related to S. cerevisiae L-A
(L1) virus
CP, RdRp; apparently complete viral genome with fused CP and RdRp genes; 3 extra copies of the CP genes RdRp but not CP transcripts detected by RT-PCR; transcripts of both genes detected in EST database [1, 13]
Uromyces appendiculatus Totivirus (dsRNA) related to S. cerevisiae L-A
(L1) virus
CP (from EST database) CP gene transcript detected in EST database [1]
Candida tropicalis M2 killer virus (unclassified dsRNA virus) K2 toxin gene Not tested [13]
Kluyveromyces lactis M2 killer virus (unclassified dsRNA virus) K2 toxin gene (3 copies) Not tested [13]
Vanderwaltozyma polyspora Penicillium stoloniferum virus F CP Not tested [13]
Animals     
Mouse (Mus musculus) Lymphocytic horiomeningitis virus (negative- strand ssRNA, Arenaviridae) Glycoprotein and nucleoprotein genes (small genomic segment) Not tested [9, 15]
Mosquitoes (Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti) Flavivirus (positive- strand ssRNA) related to Cell Fusing Agent and Kamiti River virus Non-structural protein genes (3'-terminal part of the genome) Expressed [10, 11]
  1. Ds, double-stranded; ss, single-stranded; RdRp, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase;