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Table 2 Definition of agonistic and sexual behaviours

From: To signal or not to signal? Chemical communication by urine-borne signals mirrors sexual conflict in crayfish

Behaviours Agonistic level Behavioural elements
Agonistic behaviours:   
Fleeing -2 Tail flipping, walking away quickly
Avoidance -1 Walking away slowly, turning away from opponent
Separate 0 Animals separate
Initiation 1 Approach or following opponent, turn towards opponent
Threat display 2 High on legs, meral spreading
Touching 3a Animals touching via body, antenna or chela(e) with limited movement
Physical contact (claws do not grasp) 3b Antenna whipping, claw pushing, claw boxing, claw tapping
Physical contact (claws grasp) 4 Claw lock, clamping chela(e) onto opponents body
Unrestrained aggression 5 Claw snapping, claw ripping
Mating behaviours:   
Seizing N/A Male grips the female at the rostrum, chela(e) and/or antenna, usually from an angled position
Turning N/A Male secures pereopods around the cephalothorax of the female (either from an adjacent position or by climbing on top of the female) and turns her ventral side up
Mounting N/A Male holds female so ventral surfaces are facing and maintained in a parallel position
Spermatophore deposition N/A Arching and depression of the male abdomen while depositing spermatophores on female ventral surface. Pauses common between cycles.
Dismount N/A Female is released from the mounting position through movement of the pereopods or chela(e)
  1. For full descriptions of behaviours, see [25, 44].