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Table 1 Predicted prohormone and other cell-cell signaling peptides.

From: The zebra finch neuropeptidome: prediction, detection and expression

Prohormone/gene name Gene symbol Entrez gene ID Ensembl_ID Chicken Entrez ID Chicken UniProt ID MS
Adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide 1 (pituitary) ADCYAP1 100225028 ENSTGUP00000010475 408251 P41534
Adrenomedullin ADM 100231562 ENSTGUP00000008261 423042 na -
Arginine vasopressin AVP 100217635 ENSTGUP00000011316 396101 P24787
C-fos induced growth factor (vascular endothelial growth factor D) FIGF 100227068 ENSTGUP00000008337 395255 Q8QGD7 -
C-RF amide peptide CRF 100226474 na 420716 B0LF68 -
C-type natriuretic peptide 1 CNP1 100226912 na na A9CDT5 -
C-type natriuretic peptide 3 CNP3 na ENSTGUP00000016882 419487 A9CDT6 -
Calcitonin-related polypeptide alpha CALCA 100228652 ENSTGUP00000008761 396256 P10286 -
CART prepropeptide CARTPT 100229332 na na na -
Cholecystokinin CCK 100190220 ENSTGUP00000004812 414884 Q9PU41
Chromogranin A (parathyroid secretory protein 1) CHGA 100225869 ENSTGUP00000012975 423420 na
Chromogranin B (secretogranin 1) CHGB 100230980 ENSTGUP00000002261 421312 na
Chromosome 12 open reading frame 39 (spexin) C12orf39 na ENSTGUP00000012483 na na -
Chromosome 2 open reading frame 40 C2orf40 100225694 ENSTGUP00000010030 771055 na -
Corticotropin releasing hormone CRHR1 100190638 ENSTGUP00000011624 404297 Q703P0
Endothelin 1 EDN1 100219314 ENSTGUP00000005994 420854 na -
Endothelin 2 EDN2 na ENSTGUP00000000838 419559 na -
Endothelin 3 EDN3 100218153 ENSTGUP00000008244 768509 Q3MU75 -
Galanin prepropeptide GAL 100229595 ENSTGUP00000010282 423117 P30802 -
Gastric inhibitory polypeptide GIP na ENSTGUP00000014511 419989 A1DPK0 -
Gastrin-releasing peptide GRP na ENSTGUP00000017765 425213 P01295
Ghrelin/obestatin prepropeptide GHRL na na 408185 Q8AV73 -
Glucagon GCG 100226588 ENSTGUP00000014141 396196 P68259 -
Glycoprotein hormones, alpha polypeptide CGA 100227314 ENSTGUP00000012836 421829 Q6T5C1 -
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (luteinizing-releasing hormone) GNRH1 100216318 ENSTGUP00000004488 770134 P37042
Growth hormone 1 GH1 100218808 ENSTGUP00000003400 378781 P08998
Growth hormone 1 (duplicate on Chr1) GH1A 100232594 ENSTGUP00000013961 na na -
Growth hormone releasing hormone GHRH 100218168 ENSTGUP00000005071 419178 Q1KNA7 -
Hypocretin (orexin) neuropeptide precursor HCRT 100225610 ENSTGUP00000018297 374005 Q8AV17 *
Insulin INS 100231606 ENSTGUP00000009610 396145 P67970 -
Insulin-like 5 INSL5 na ENSTGUP00000010477 na na -
Insulin-like growth factor 1 (somatomedin C) IGF1 100226283 ENSTGUP00000011633 418090 P18254 -
Insulin-like growth factor 2 (somatomedin A) IGF2 100144432 ENSTGUP00000009618 395097 P33717 -
Islet amyloid polypeptide IAPP 100230121 ENSTGUP00000012072 396362 Q90743 -
Mesotocin-neurophysin I MST 100220528 ENSTGUP00000011315 768516 Q2ACD0
Motilin MLN 100217914 ENSTGUP00000001847 768422 Q9PRP6 -
Natriuretic peptide precursor A NPPA 100217781 ENSTGUP00000016155 395765 P18908 -
Neuromedin B NMB 100222573 ENSTGUP00000004989 415333 A0MAR5 -
Neuromedin U NMU na ENSTGUP00000007709 422748 P34963 -
Neuropeptide S NPS na ENSTGUP00000011907 na na -
Neuropeptide VF precursor (gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone) NPVF 100038821 ENSTGUP00000002951 378785 Q75XU6
Neuropeptide W NPW na na 769277 na -
Neuropeptide Y NPY 100232180 ENSTGUP00000002889 396464 P28673
Neurotensin NTS 100190409 ENSTGUP00000008164 417883 P13724
Osteocrin OSTN 100230749 ENSTGUP00000009566 424907 A5JNH0 -
Pancreatic polypeptide PPY na na 395564 P68248 -
Parathyroid hormone PTH 100221585 ENSTGUP00000016235 396436 P15743 -
Parathyroid hormone-like hormone PTHLH 100230763 ENSTGUP00000013060 396281 P17251
Platelet derived growth factor D PDGFD 100221512 ENSTGUP00000013067 418978 na -
Platelet-derived growth factor alpha polypeptide PDGFA 100222155 ENSTGUP00000008778 374196 Q90WK2 -
Platelet-derived growth factor beta polypeptide (simian sarcoma viral (v-sis) oncogene homolog) PDGFB 100228287 ENSTGUP00000010592 374128 Q90W23 -
Prepronociceptin PNOC na na 422019 na -
Pro-melanin-concentrating hormone PMCH 100223423 ENSTGUP00000011636 418091 na -
Prodynorphin PDYN na na na na -
Proenkephalin PENK 100190068 ENSTGUP00000011453 421131 na
Prokineticin 2 PROK2 na ENSTGUP00000010242 771674 na -
Prolactin PRL na ENSTGUP00000006544 396453 P14676
Prolactin B PRLB na ENSTGUP00000006179 417800 C6ZDB7 -
Prolactin releasing hormone PRLH na na 424018 A3RJ26 -
Proopiomelanocortin POMC 100219426 ENSTGUP00000017296 422011 Q9YI93
Pyroglutamylated RFamide peptide QRFP 100222487 na 771867 na -
Relaxin 3 RLN3 100225505 ENSTGUP00000005181 427223 B1AC67
Secretin SCT 100219077 ENSTGUP00000007375 423015 P01280 -
Secretogranin II (chromogranin C) SCG2 100219534 ENSTGUP00000008135 424808 na
Secretogranin V (7B2 protein) SCG5 100228713 ENSTGUP00000012091 769742 Q5ZI41
Somatostatin SST 100219295 na 396279 P33094
Somatostatin 2 SST2 100221267 ENSTGUP00000017225 395106 Q7T2S6 -
Tachykinin, precursor 1 TAC1 100227778 ENSTGUP00000001703 420573 na
Thyroid-stimulating hormone beta TSHB 100220136 ENSTGUP00000000984 395937 O57340 -
Thyrotropin-releasing hormone TRH 100228179 ENSTGUP00000010894 414344 Q6ZXC3 -
Urocortin UCN na na na na  
Urocortin 3 UCN3 100221165 na na na
Urotensin 2 UTS2 100222633 ENSTGUP00000002613 404535 Q6Q2J6 -
Urotensin 2 domain-containing UTS2D 100218300 ENSTGUP00000009562 404534 Q6Q273 -
Vascular endothelial growth factor C VEGFC 100221203 ENSTGUP00000006624 422573 O57352 (quail) -
Vasoactive intestinal peptide VIP 100217965 ENSTGUP00000011533 396323 P48143
  1. The list of 76 prohormone and signalling genes predicted from the survey of the zebra finch genome; information on gene name and identification are provided. In the mass spectrometry (MS) column, a check mark (√) indicates confirmation via MS, an asterisk (*) indicates their homologues are identified in other species and a dash (-) indicates no confirmation. Peptides from 24 predicted genes were detected by MS. The protein sequences of the discovered prohormone and signaling genes are provided in FASTA format [see Additional File 2].