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Table 1 Age- and rank-related changes in the acoustic parameters of groans.

From: Quality prevails over identity in the sexually selected vocalisations of an ageing mammal

  Age Rank
Acoustic variable Relationship df F P R 2 Relationship df F P R 2
F0 max linear 1,16 6.85 0.02 0.13 log 1,12 6.15 0.03 0.15
F0 mean linear 1,16 10.90 0.005 0.23 log 1,12 3.15 0.10 0.23
F0 min linear 1,16 42.78 < 0.0001 0.30 log 1,12 0.69 0.42 0.27
Jitter linear 1,16 0.01 0.94 0.06 log 1,12 2.44 0.14 0.07
Duration linear 1,16 0.54 0.47 0.21 log 1,12 0.04 0.85 0.23
Pulses linear 1,16 2.30 0.15 0.18 log 1,12 0.82 0.38 0.18
Frmax linear 1,16 2.34 0.15 0.12 log 1,12 2.02 0.18 0.17
F1min linear 1,16 0.07 0.79 0.16 quadratic 1.11 1.14 0.31 0.13
F2min linear 1,16 2.35 0.15 0.15 quadratic 1.11 0.21 0.65 0.16
F3min linear 1,16 1.54 0.23 0.09 quadratic 1.11 1.27 0.28 0.06
F4 min quadratic 1,15 5.82 0.03 0.26 quadratic 1.11 3.27 0.10 0.25
F5 min quadratic 1,15 1.85 0.19 0.23 quadratic 1.11 4.10 0.07 0.23
F6 min quadratic 1,15 15.40 0.001 0.38 linear 1,12 4.55 0.05 0.26
Df min quadratic 1,15 8.09 0.01 0.37 linear 1,12 3.16 0.10 0.30
  1. Bold types indicate significant and marginally significant results.
  2. Results of generalized linear mixed models to investigate variation in the measured acoustic variables, in relation to male age and dominance rank. Both age and dominance rank influence the F0 contour and the minimum frequencies of highest formants.