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Table 3 Contribution of the acoustic parameters to the individuality of groans.

From: Quality prevails over identity in the sexually selected vocalisations of an ageing mammal

  Year of recording and discriminant function
  2002 2003 2004
PC 1 2 1 2 1 2
PC1 (HigherF) 0.95 0.01 -0.59 0.04 -0.56 -0.18
PC2 (F0 contour) 0.29 -0.60 0.44 0.72 0.75 -0.08
PC3 (TempP) -0.10 -0.78 0.66 -0.37 -0.49 0.69
PC4 (lowerF) -0.24 -0.16 0.38 0.31 -0.11 0.58
PC5 (F0&Jitter) 0.11 -0.17 0.31 -0.37 -0.48 -0.64
Cum % variance 0.43 0.73 0.53 0.76 0.60 0.82
  1. Bold types indicate correlations greater than |r| = 0.5. Cumulative explained variances are given at the bottom of the table. See text for abbreviation of measured acoustic variables.
  2. Correlations between the PC1 to PC5 scores and the first and second discriminant functions generated by DFAs conducted using the Principal Component scores corresponding to 2002, 2003 and 2004 recordings. PCs that are highly correlated with these two discriminant functions contribute the most to the individual identity of groans. Male vocal cues to identity are parameters determined by both vocal folds (PC2, PC3 and PC5) and vocal tract (PC1 and PC4) characteristics.