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Table 1 Adjuvants in use or being tested for use in human vaccines

From: Immune mechanisms of protection: can adjuvants rise to the challenge?

Adjuvant Composition Current status References
Aluminum salts (alum) Aluminum hydroxide or aluminum phosphate non-crystalline gels In use in vaccines against DT, DPT, HBV, Hib, Streptococcus pneumoniae, meningococcal and HPV infections [94]
MF59 Oil (squalene)-in-water emulsion In use in influenza vaccine (Europe); in trials for malarial, hepatitis C and HIV vaccine systems [18, 9599]
MPL Non-toxic derivative of LPS Used in various trials in combination with oil (squalene)-in-water emulsions for malaria and leishmaniasis or in liposomal formulation [87, 100]
QS21 Purified fraction of Quil A Trialed alone and in combination with MPL (AS02, AS01) for malaria, influenza and cancers [87]
ISCOMS Liposomes containing QS21 Trials for influenza vaccines [101, 102]
AS01 Liposomal formulation containing MPL and QS21 Trials for malaria vaccines (a more effective formulation than AS03 and AS04) [87]
AS02 Oil (squalene)-in-water emulsion of MPL and QS21 Trials for malaria, HBV and TB vaccines [103]
AS03 Oil (squalene)-in-water emulsion Trials for influenza vaccines [20, 21]
AS04 Aluminum hydroxide and MPL Trials for HBV and HPV vaccines [104, 105]
MPL-SE MPL in a oil (squalene)-in-water emulsion Trials for leishmaniasis vaccines [100]
  1. Abbreviations: DPT, Diphtheria pertussis tetanus toxoid; DT, Diphtheria toxoid; HBV, Hepatitis B virus; Hib, Haemophilus influenzae, HIV, human immunodeficiency virus; HPV, human papilloma virus; ISCOMs, immune stimulating complexes; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; MPL, monophosphoryl lipid A; TB, tuberculosis.