Serum cytokine concentrations (pg/mL) of adult offspring from each maternal treatment group 3.5 hours after LPS challenge. MPSI caused blunted release of predominantly innate-type cytokines in challenged offspring. A selection is shown here; the remaining cytokines are shown in Figure S3 in Additional file 4. All values represent means ± SEM. *P ≤ 0.05 vs. control independent of maternal origin and litter size (n = 6 mothers per treatment). Maternal treatments: Sal = saline; 10 LPS = 10 μg/kg LPS; 50 LPS = 50 μg/kg LPS; 150 LPS = 150 μg/kg LPS.