Effect of pupal hormone manipulations on different wing traits. (A) For each trait, temperature and time point combination, the circles represent the magnitude (circle size; scale on top right corner) and statistical significance (circle color, with red for significant differences; compare with permutation test explained in the Material and methods) of the difference between hormone- versus control-injected individuals (details in Additional file 2). As for Figures 2 and 3, the traits are organized per type: dorsal eyespot traits, ventral eyespot traits, ventral bands and wing areas. The final number of measurements for each trait in each experimental group can be found in Additional file 2. The difference between control and hormone treatments was tested using a series of core and confirmatory statistical tests, all giving largely the same results (details in Materials and methods and Additional file 2). (B) Photos of the ventral surface of adult hindwings representing the phenotypes of different temperature and injection treatments: control-injected individual at 27°C, hormone-injected individual at 19°C and control-injected individual at 19°C. Scale bar corresponds to 1 cm. All images are from butterflies injected as pupae at 3% of their development time. These wings illustrate how early hormone manipulations at lower temperature increase the area of different color pattern components, bringing the phenotypes closer to those of individuals reared at higher temperature.