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Table 1 Shear and adhesive strength of animal adhesive pads in comparison with single cells

From: Mechanotransduction: use the force(s)

  Strength (kPa) Source
Shear forces   
 Gecko seta: real contact area 53,300 [124, 125]
 Gecko seta: projected contact area 2,880  
 Beetle pad: real contact area 681 [112]
 Beetle pad: projected contact area 259  
 Weaver ants 405 [126]
 Stick insects 299 [112]
 Barnacles 10-300 [127]
 Fibroblast cells (whole) 0.048 [128]
 Fibroblast cells (focal contacts) 5.5 [103]
Adhesion   
 Gecko seta: real contact area 10,700 [124, 125]
 Gecko seta: projected contact area 576  
 Beetle pad: real contact area 86.9 [112]
 Beetle pad: projected contact area 35.5  
 Stick insect pad 44.6 [112]
 Barnacles 100-1000 [90]
 Ants ~50 [126]
 Endothelial cells 0.56-1.1 [129]