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Table 1 The different levels of study replication in relation to establishing validity and generality

From: Replicating research in ecology and evolution: feasibility, incentives, and the cost-benefit conundrum

Replication level Testing validity Scope of generality
Exact (close) replication Excellent Narrowly defined biological phenomenon limited to a population, strain, or locality
Partial replication Good Fairly narrowly defined biological phenomenon mostly limited to a population, strain, or locality
Conceptual replication Poor Species- or system-specific phenomenon, broadly defined
Quasi-replication (partial) Poor Narrowly defined biological phenomenon across species or system
Quasi-replication (conceptual) Poor Broadly defined biological phenomenon across species or systems