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Table 1 Molecular estimates of divergence dates (in Mya)

From: A phylogenomic framework and timescale for comparative studies of tunicates

Nodes LN CAT-GTR + Γ4   UGAM CAT-GTR + Γ4  
Mean ± SD 95% Cred. int. Mean ± SD 95% Cred. int.
#63 Deuterostomia 599 ± 11 [621–579] 671 ± 108 [985–576]
#64 Xenambulacraria 588 ± 16 [616–555] 600 ± 89 [849–467]
#65 Ambulacraria 551 ± 16 [578–516] 517 ± 72 [677–403]
#66 Hemichordata 404 ± 34 [458–326] 206 ± 101 [427–63]
#67 Echinodermata 431 ± 21 [469–388] 403 ± 47 [507–323]
#68 406 ± 21 [442–363] 284 ± 83 [433–121]
#69 408 ± 20 [443–368] 360 ± 42 [450–287]
#70 158 ± 22 [210–112] 117 ± 51 [249–42]
#71 Echinoideaa 260 ± 18 [303–229] 266 ± 28 [342–222]
#72 89 ± 15 [121–61] 85 ± 49 [195–20]
#73 Chordataa 578 ± 6 [586–563] 575 ± 7 [586–558]
#74 Olfactoresa 547 ± 6 [557–532] 545 ± 11 [564–523]
#75 Tunicata 447 ± 20 [484–411] 450 ± 26 [495–398]
#76 389 ± 32 [449–333] 388 ± 30 [439–326]
#77 296 ± 44 [379–226] 311 ± 40 [380–228]
#78 Thaliacea 238 ± 44 [324–164] 218 ± 54 [318–118]
#79 274 ± 44 [356–203] 272 ± 43 [351–176]
#80 259 ± 43 [340–190] 246 ± 44 [330–154]
#81 Ciona 122 ± 33 [184–65] 97 ± 44 [196–32]
#82 Aplousobranchia 212 ± 39 [281–150] 196 ± 44 [282–120]
#83 Cystodytes Clavelina 117 ± 27 [168–73] 121 ± 32 [189–66]
#84 Stolidobranchia 350 ± 36 [416–292] 326 ± 39 [396–245]
#85 Mogulidae 219 ± 35 [285–156] 203 ± 48 [297–122]
#86 Molgula 176 ± 32 [233–118] 145 ± 40 [239–82]
#87 M. manhattensis  M. tectiformis 130 ± 26 [179–82] 94 ± 31 [162–44]
#88 Styelidae + Pyuridae 277 ± 35 [343–218] 228 ± 49 [323–139]
#89 197 ± 28 [252–145] 152 ± 41 [249–84]
#90 167 ± 25 [217–118] 113 ± 34 [187–59]
#91 Polyandrocarpa Dendrodoa 152 ± 24 [200–105] 84 ± 30 [156–37]
#92 Vertebrata 490 ± 7 [504–476] 481 ± 13 [510–460]
#93 Cyclostomata 434 ± 8 [449–418] 277 ± 94 [430–101]
#94 Gnathostomataa 443 ± 4 [452–435] 437 ± 9 [459–424]
#95 Chondrichthyes 363 ± 11 [380–338] 192 ± 96 [394–62]
#96 249 ± 22 [277–192] 88 ± 59 [261–23]
#97 Osteichthyesa 418 ± 2 [422–416] 419 ± 2 [422–416]
#98 Clupeocephalaa 159 ± 4 [165–150] 157 ± 5 [165–150]
#99 391 ± 3 [397–386] 393 ± 15 [415–360]
#100 377 ± 3 [383–371] 374 ± 16 [405–346]
#101 Tetrapodaa 349 ± 2 [351–345] 341 ± 6 [350–330]
#102 Amphibia 326 ± 3 [332–320] 246 ± 30 [299–200]
#103 180 ± 26 [232–132] 71 ± 51 [190–14]
#104 Batrachiaa 232 ± 21 [268–190] 123 ± 48 [225–47]
#105 118 ± 29 [174–68] 42 ± 32 [132–9]
#106 182 ± 25 [224–136] 71 ± 37 [160–21]
#107 Amniotaa 312 ± 1 [315–310] 319 ± 5 [329–312]
#108 Mammaliaa 186 ± 5 [192–172] 176 ± 8 [191–163]
#109 Theriaa 146 ± 9 [163–127] 143 ± 14 [170–123]
#110 69 ± 13 [96–47] 47 ± 35 [128–8]
#111 62 ± 11 [86–43] 55 ± 31 [127–15]
#112 52 ± 10 [] 35 ± 24 [100–9]
#113 Diapsidaa 271 ± 6 [282–259] 278 ± 14 [300–256]
#114 Lepidosauria 243 ± 10 [261–224] 166 ± 69 [283–57]
#115 168 ± 14 [189–138] 88 ± 47 [203–28]
#116 139 ± 14 [162–107] 55 ± 35 [152–16]
#117 252 ± 9 [269–233] 154 ± 69 [280–55]
#118 Testudines 180 ± 19 [220–146] 59 ± 41 [173–16]
#119 163 ± 19 [204–128] 38 ± 28 [120–11]
#120 96 ± 18 [136–62] 15 ± 14 []
#121 Archosauria 218 ± 16 [249–186] 102 ± 51 [238–37]
#122 81 ± 29 [150–38] 23 ± 22 [85–4]
#123 Aves 111 ± 27 [170–67] 45 ± 28 [120–14]
#124 Crocodylia 86 ± 24 [142–46] 23 ± 18 []
  1. aCalibration constraints
  2. The reported values represent mean divergence dates and associated standard deviations and 95% credibility intervals obtained from a Bayesian relaxed molecular clock under the LN and UGAM models coupled with a CAT-GTR + Γ4 mixture model. Values in bold refer to tunicates
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