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Table 1 Ways that researchers can promote the practice of open science today

From: Be the change you seek in science

• Within one’s home institution
 ° Catalyze open science practices through seminars, workshops, hackathons, contests [7].
 ° Join groups that advocate evaluation or promotion criteria in support of open science.
 ° Pursue funding opportunities that require or permit open intellectual property.
 ° Opt for open methods rather than proprietary, licensed products.
 ° Strive toward reproducibility.
 ° Apply liberal licenses to documents and software.
 ° Store data in free and open access repositories.
• Collaborations
 ° Forge ties across labs to share resources.
 ° Collaborate with institutions that require open standards.
 ° Use collaborative software and collaborative software engineering practices.
 ° Publish a code of conduct for each project to clarify roles and to help resolve disputes.
 ° Clarify contributor roles at the outset of a project to assign appropriate credit and accountability, especially for open contributions.
 ° Clarify when contributions to a project can be released.
 ° Avail oneself of experts in alternative and complementary methods to reduce bias [8], evaluate methods, and corroborate results.
 ° Participate in interdisciplinary open science and collaboration events.
• Publications and presentations
 ° Preregister research, and openly publish the preregistration.
 ° Encourage participation of scientists and non-scientists alike.
 ° Publish and present in venues and in accessible language intended for general audiences, and audiences of different disciplines.
 ° Publish in open access venues and follow FAIR (findable, accessible, interoperable, reusable) principles.
 ° Publish in open data and open methods journals.
 ° Follow community-supported data format and reporting guidelines.
 ° Insist on publishing experimental protocols and negative results.
 ° Boycott review or submission for publishers and publications that flout open standards.
 ° When reviewing others’ work, acknowledge attempts and provide recommendations toward more open science practices.
 ° Participate in open peer review, especially in languages other than English.
 ° Include an ethics section to articulate ethical considerations and implications.
 ° Study and report the costs and benefits of your own open practices.
 ° Make it clear where people can access open resources that you mention.
 ° When someone else mentions a resource, ask about access and usage restrictions.
 ° Include open resources on one’s webpage and CV.
• Social media
 ° Use and contribute to wikis and social Q&A networks.
 ° Do not engage in ad hominem attacks.
 ° Do not take others’ comments personally; respond to the science and request guidance toward better open science practices.
 ° Tactfully ask clarifying questions to help guide a discussion toward a useful resolution.
 ° Publicly acknowledge contributions to open science projects whenever possible.
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