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Table 1 Comparative performance of genetically targeted voltage indicators. Values extracted from the literature. NR not reported, RT room temperature

From: Genetic voltage indicators

  λex [nm] λem [nm] Rise time (depol.) [ms] Decay time (hyperpol.) [ms] Intensity ~[W/cm2] SNR Res. spike rate [Hz] ΔF/F for 100 mV Bleaching Reference
VSD-based
 ArcLight Q239 480 520 τ1 = 9 (50%)
τ2 = 48 (RT)
τ1 = 17 (79%)
τ2 = 63 (RT)
Xenon arc lamp 3.7 per AP 10 −35% τ = 244 s Jin 2012 [34]; Bando 2019 [49]
 ArcLight-MT 480 535 τ = 84.8 (RT) τ = 91.9 (RT) Mercury arc lamp 5.6 per AP 10 −20% τ = 360 s Kwon 2017 [46]; Bando 2019 [49]
 ASAP1 472 525 τ1 = 2.1 (60%)
τ2 = 71.5 (RT)
τ1 = 2.0 (43.7%)
τ2 = 50.8 (RT)
10− 1 14.6 per AP 200 − 20% τ = 35 m St-Pierre 2014 [38]
 ASAP2f 470 525 τ1 = 2.8 (81%)
τ2 = 135 (RT)
τ1 = 2.4 (71%)
τ2 = 155 (RT)
100 5 per AP 100 −20% τ = 404 s Yang 2016 [39]; Chamberland 2017 [41]
 ASAP2s 480 525 τ1 = 5.2 (56%)
τ2 = 63 (RT)
τ1 = 24 (49%)
τ2 = 106 (RT)
100 8 per AP 100 −38% τ1 = 121 s (69%) τ2 = 1017 s Chamberland 2017 [41]
 ASAP3 484 525 τ1 = 3.7 (81%)
τ2 = 48 (RT)
τ1 = 16 (81%)
τ2 = 102 (RT)
10−1 2.6 per AP (2P) 100 −50% 19.6%/first 10 s 0.99%/m after that (2P) Chavarha 2018 [40]
 Bongwoori 472 496 τ1 = 8 (91%)
τ2 = 30 (RT)
τ = 7 (RT) Xenon arc lamp 19 per AP 60 −15% >  450 s Piao 2015 [37]; Lee 2017 [91]
 Bongwoori-R3 472 497 τ1 = 7 (90%)
τ2 = 45 (RT)
τ1 = 6 (91%)
τ2 = 46 (RT)
Xenon arc lamp 52 per AP 65 −20% >  450 s Lee 2017 [91]
 FlicR1 561 595 τ1 = 3 (90%)
τ2 = 42 (RT)
τ1 = 2.8 (70%)
τ2 = 18 (RT)
101 6 per AP 100 6.40% τ = 150 s Abdelfattah 2016 [42]; Kannan 2018 [44]
 FlicR2 561 630 τ1 = 2.9
τ2 = 29.5 (RT)
τ1 = 3.1
τ2 = 28.5 (RT)
100 NR NR 12.90% NR Kannan 2018 [44]
 Marina 488 520 τ = 29.2 (RT) τ1 = 15.6 (61%)
τ2 = 59.4 (RT)
100 4.5 per AP NR 29.20% τ = 206 s Platisa 2017 [43]
 Mermaid 455 480 (donor)
575 (acceptor)
τ1~ 12
τ2~200 (RT)
τ~  128 (RT) 100 NR 100 ~ 30% ΔR/R NR Tsutsui 2008 [28]
 VSFP Butterfly1.2 483 542 (donor)
594 (acceptor)
τ1~1.5 (35%)
τ2~15 (RT)
NR Xenon arc lamp NR 40 5% ΔR/R NR Akemann 2012 [92]
Rhodopsin-based
 Arch 640 687 < 1 < 1 103 NR NR 40% at 640 nm NR Kralj 2012 [29]; Maclaurin 2013 [58]; Hochbaum 2014 [93]
 Arch (D95N) 640 687 τ1 = 0.5 (20%)
τ2 = 41 (RT)
NR 103 NR NR 50% at 640 nm NR Kralj 2012 [29]; Maclaurin 2013 [58]
 Archer1 655 NR Like Arch Like Arch 102 NR 40 85% at 655 nm NR Flytzanis 2014 [53]
 QuasAr1 640 715 τ1 = 0.05 (94%)
τ2 = 3.2 (RT)
Similar to rising 102 20–30 per AP NR 32% at 640 nm τ = 440 s Hochbaum 2014 [93]
 QuasAr2 640 715 τ1 = 1.2 (68%)
τ2 = 11.8 (RT)
Similar to rising 102 40–70 per AP NR 90% at 640 nm τ = 1020 s Hochbaum 2014 [93]
 QuasAr3 Like QuasAr2 Like QuasAr2 τ1 = 1.2 (77%)
τ2 = 10.0 (34 °C)
τ1 = 0.9 (91%)
τ2 = 9.0 (34 °C)
102 27 per AP NR 54% at 640 nm NR Adam 2018 [55]
 Archon1 637 NR τ1 = 0.6 (88%)
τ2 = 8.1 (34 °C)
τ1 = 1.1 (88%)
τ2 = 13 (34 °C)
101–102 21 per AP NR 43% at 637 nm 0.01%/s Piatkevich 2018 [57]
 Archon2 637 NR τ1 = 0.6 (70%)
τ2 = 6.7 (34 °C)
τ1 = 0.17 (92%)
τ2 = 7.0 (34 °C)
101–102 16 per AP 200 19% at 637 nm 0.03%/s Piatkevich 2018 [57]
 QuasAr2-mOrange 549 565 τ1 = 3.9 (60%)
τ2 = 27 (23 °C)
τ1 = 4.3 (45%)
τ2 = 26 (23 °C)
101 9 per AP NR −10% NR Zou 2014 [61]
 MacQ-mCitrine 515 530 τ1 = 2.8 (74%)
τ2 = 71 (RT)
τ1 = 5.4 (77%)
τ2 = 67 (RT)
101 NR NR −20% 1.3%/s Gong 2014 [60]; Gong 2015 [52]
 Ace2-4aa-mNeon 505 515 τ1 = 0.37 (58%)
τ2 = 5.5 (RT)
τ1 = 0.5 (60%)
τ2 = 5.9 (RT)
101 NR NR −12% 0.6%/s Gong 2015 [52]
 VARNAM 558 605 τ1 = 0.88
τ2 = 5.2 (RT)
τ1 = 0.80
τ2 = 4.7 (RT)
101 36 per AP 100 −14% for 120 mV τ = 256 s Kannan 2018 [44]
Chemogenetics based
 hVOS 480 535 <  1 <  1 Mercury arc lamp NR 667 34% NR Chanda et al. 2005 [70]
 Flare1 488 570 τ1 = 0.92 (96%)
τ2 = 23.5
τ1 = 1.41 (91%)
τ2 = 25.6
100 53 20 35.9% NR Xu et al. 2018 [74]
 Voltron 525 532 553 τ1 = 0.64 (61%)
τ2 = 4.1
τ1 = 0.78 (55%)
τ2 = 3.9
100 4.4 10 30% τ = 206 s Abdelfattah 2016 [42]
 VF-EX 525 540 <  1 <  1 NR 20 3 21% NR Liu et al. 2017 [77]
 VoltageSpy 525 540 <  1 <  1 10−1–100 7.7 NR 60% NR Grenier et al. 2019 [82]
 HAPI-Nile 540–552 581 τ1 = 1.9 (85%) τ1 = 1.9 (85%) 101 12.4 10 5.50% NR Sundukova et al. 2019 [83]