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Table 3 The common symbiosis pathway (CSP) controls the establishment of rhizobia–legume associations and the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis

From: Are we there yet? The long walk towards the development of efficient symbiotic associations between nitrogen-fixing bacteria and non-leguminous crops

The common symbiosis pathway (CSP) controls the establishment of rhizobia–legume associations and the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Mucoromycotina) produce diffusible Myc factors composed of short chitin oligomers as well as lipo-chitooligosaccharides similar to rhizobial Nod factors. These fungal signals are perceived by LysM RLKs similar to the Nod factor receptors [62, 186, 187]. The arbuscular mycorrhizal association appeared with the first land plants about 450 million years ago and is still found in more than 70% land plants, including most legumes and cereals [188]. In contrast, root nodule symbioses appeared much more recently, around 100 million years ago, and are restricted to plants of the “FaFaCuRo clade” [182, 189]. It seems likely that the nitrogen-fixing bacteria mimicked fungal signals and co-opted the ancient and widespread mycorrhizal pathway.