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Fig. 5 | BMC Biology

Fig. 5

From: Optogenetic activation of parvalbumin and somatostatin interneurons selectively restores theta-nested gamma oscillations and oscillation-induced spike timing-dependent long-term potentiation impaired by amyloid β oligomers

Fig. 5

Optogenetic activation of SST interneurons restores AβO1–42-induced impairment of theta-nested gamma oscillation-induced tLTP. a Experimental schematic. Whole-cell current-clamp recordings in CA1 PC and Schaffer collateral (SC) stimulation for theta-nested gamma oscillation-like tLTP induction at CA3-CA1 excitatory synapses. b tLTP was induced by pairing presynaptic SC stimulation with postsynaptic CA1 PC spike bursts (4 spikes at 100 Hz) with a + 10 ms time window, repeated 200 times at 5 Hz. Inset: enlarged EPSP evoked by presynaptic SC stimulation, scale bar 10 ms, 1 mV. c–e EPSP slopes normalized to mean of 10-min baseline in DMSO-treated slice (c), + D-AP5 (50 μM) in DMSO-treated slice (d) and in AβO1–42-treated slices (e). Black arrow: onset of tLTP induction. Test pathways (filled circles), control pathways (empty circles). Insets: representative EPSPs at indicated time points (1, 2 or 1′, 2′). f Mean of normalized EPSPs slopes of last 5 min of test (filled bars) and control pathways (empty bars) in DMSO-treated slices (black), + D-AP5 in DMSO-treated slices (dotted black) and in AβO1–42-treated slices (red). g Micro-injection of AAV-DIO-ChR2-mCherry to CA1 area in SST-Cre and PV-Cre mice (top) and fluorescence images (bottom) of ChR2-expressing SST interneurons (ChR2-SST, left) and ChR2-expressing PV interneurons (ChR2-PV, right). h–j Same as c–e but tLTP induction with blue light stimulation (blue bar) for ChR2-SST activation (h), for ChR2-SST activation in the presence of D-AP5 (50 μM, i), and for activation of ChR2-PV (j) in AβO1–42-treated slices. k Same as f but with ChR2-SST activation (green), ChR2-SST activation in the presence of D-AP5 (dotted green), and ChR2-PV activation (purple) in AβO1–42-treated slices. Paired Student’s t test for comparing test and control pathways (f, k, *p < 0.05, ns: not significant), one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey’s test for comparing test pathways in different conditions (f, k, #p < 0.05). Data are represented as mean ± SEM

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