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Fig. 5. | BMC Biology

Fig. 5.

From: Integrating evolutionarily novel horns within the deeply conserved insect head

Fig. 5.

Pupal defects in the dorsal head and cephalic horns induced by RNAi-based manipulation of Wnt signaling. ai Male pupae. ac Buffer-injected control. df Inhibiting Wnt signal by dsh RNAi. dsh RNAi causes wings, legs, and T1 horn to be reduced (red arrowhead in d and e) as well as the posterior head horns to duplicate (arrows in e and blue shading in f). gi Over-activating Wnt signal by axin RNAi. axin RNAi causes wings and T1 horn to hyper-proliferate (red arrowhead in g and h), results in a reduction of the anterior region of the head (black arrowhead in h), and reduces the posterior horns to small horn remnants (arrows in h and blue shading in i). jr Female pupae. jl Buffer-injected control. mo Inhibiting Wnt signal by dsh RNAi. dsh RNAi causes wings, legs, and T1 horn to be reduced (red arrowhead in m and n) and the posterior ridge to enlarge (arrows in n and blue shading in o). pr Over-activating Wnt signal by axin RNAi. axin RNAi causes wings and T1 horn to hyper-proliferate (red arrowhead in p and q) and and reduces both the anterior region of the head (black arrowhead in q) as well as the posterior ridge (arrows in q and blue shading in r). Cartoons in c, f, i, l, o, and r are drawn directly from the images in b, e, h, k, n and q, respectively

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