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Fig. 6. | BMC Biology

Fig. 6.

From: Integrating evolutionarily novel horns within the deeply conserved insect head

Fig. 6.

RNAi of candidate anterior head patterning genes causes varying defects in the anterior heads of two Onthophagus species. ahOnthophagus taurus anterior head gene RNAi. a, b Buffer-injected controls showing the regularly formed anterior ridge in females (arrow in b). c, drx RNAi. rx RNAi causes irregularities in the anterior head margin of males and females (arrowheads) and a reduction of the anterior head ridge in females (arrow in d). e, f cnc RNAi. g, hsp8 RNAi. Neither cnc nor sp8 RNAi causes irregularities in the anterior dorsal head. ipO. sagittarius anterior head gene RNAi. i, j Buffer-injected controls showing the regularly formed pair of anterior head horns in males (arrows in i). k, lrx RNAi. rx RNAi causes irregularities in the anterior head margin of both males and females (arrowheads) and a strong reduction of anterior head horns in males (arrows in k) without affecting the medial posterior horn of females (l). m, ncnc RNAi. cnc RNAi causes irregularities in the anterior head margin of both males and females (arrowheads) and a reduction of anterior head horns in males (arrows in M) but without affecting the medial posterior horn of females (n). o, psp8 RNAi. sp8 RNAi causes a reduction of anterior head horns in males (arrows in o) yet does not affect the medial posterior horn of females (p)

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