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Table 1 Descriptive statistics of the analyses sample from the Luxembourg Parkinson’s Disease Study

From: Parkinson’s disease-associated alterations of the gut microbiome predict disease-relevant changes in metabolic functions

Variable PD Control Missing values
PD (%) Control (%)
Cases vs. controls 147 162 0 0
Female subjects 31.5% 35.8% 0 0
Age at basic assessment (mean ± SD) 69.3 ± 8.6 63.3 ± 8.3 0 0
Body mass index (mean ± SD) 27.3 ± 4.5 27.9 ± 4.8 0.7 0
Sniff score (mean ± SD) 7.1 ± 3.4 12.7 ± 2.1 0 0
Diabetes 4.1% 3.1% 0 0
Non-motor symptoms questionnaire score (NMS-PD) (mean ± SD) 9.3 ± 5.1 3.9 ± 3.9 9.5 3.7
Constipation 36.7% 6.2% 0 0
PD disease duration since diagnosis 5.9 ± 5.7 6.1
UPDRS-part I (mean ± SD) 10.0 ± 5.9 4.5 ± 4.4 3.4 3.1
UPDRS-part II (mean ± SD) 11.8 ± 8.1 1.3 ± 2.8 1.4 2.4
UPDRS-part III (mean ± SD) 34.6 ± 16.1 2.3 ± 2.9 1.4 0
UPDRS-part IV (mean ± SD) 1.7 ± 3.2 1.4
Hoehn and Yahr (mean ± SD) 2.2 ± 0.6 0
L-DOPA intake 66.7% 0% 0 0
Dopamine agonist intake 56.5% 0% 0 0
MAO-B inhibitor intake 41.5% 0% 0 0
COMT inhibitor intake 4.1% 0% 0 0
  1. PD disease duration refers to the time since diagnosis at the date of stool sampling
  2. SD standard deviation, UPDRS Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale, L-DOPA levodopa, MAO-B monoaminooxidase B, COMT catecholamine-methyl-transferase, NMPC net maximal production capability, “–” no value to report
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