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Fig. 1 | BMC Biology

Fig. 1

From: Spatial and temporal modulation of enterotoxigenic E. coli H10407 pathogenesis and interplay with microbiota in human gut models

Fig. 1

TIM-1 and M-SHIME set-up of the present study. a On the left side, picture of the TIM-1 system mimicking the main physicochemical parameters of the gastro-intestinal digestion (gastric pH, digestive secretion delivery, transit time, and passive absorption). Experiments were reproducing an adult ingesting a glass of water contaminated with ETEC. On the right side, sampling times (minutes) associated to the gut regions. Samples were taken directly in each compartment; or indirectly by pooling the gastric effluents when the stomach compartment was solely used, or the ileal effluents when the entire system was used. b Picture of the M-SHIME system mimicking the digestive and fermentative conditions of three individuals. The run has been performed twice (six distinct individuals). The stomach/combined duodenum-jejunum vessel was connected with three ileum bioreactors coupled to three ascending colon vessels. Upon start-up (day 0), the ascending colons were inoculated with the fecal samples obtained from three individuals. The fecal inoculation of the ileum started at day 3, by introducing a small amount of the fecal suspension collected in the ascending colon for each individual. To reproduce the mucosal phase, microcosms coated with type III mucin-agar were introduced in each ileum and ascending colon vessels. ETEC infection was performed at day 13 in the ileum. Samples were taken daily during the 20 days fermentation

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