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Fig. 1 | BMC Biology

Fig. 1

From: Fitness effects for Ace insecticide resistance mutations are determined by ambient temperature

Fig. 1

Experimental design and characteristics of the founder population. a The ancestral experimental population was composed of 250 isofemale lines from a natural Portuguese D. simulans population. Five replicated experimental populations were maintained at two temperature regimes. In the hot regime (red), populations are exposed to 12 h of light (28 °C) and 12 h of darkness (18 °C). In the cold regime (blue), populations are exposed to 12 h of light (20 °C) and 12 h of darkness (10 °C). All populations were maintained at a constant census size (at least 1000 flies) and non-overlapping generations. Genomic sequences (Pool-seq [13]) were obtained from the ancestral population (generation 0) and at generations 15, 37, and 59 for the hot regime and generations 11, 21, 31, 41, and 51 for the cold regime. b Haplotype structure at the Ace locus: The x-axis shows the genomic position on chromosome 3R in Mb around the Ace locus. Each single row shows the haplotype information of one isofemale line originating from the natural Portuguese D. simulans population. Isofemale line identifiers are colored by the assigned haplotype class (2 in blue, 1a in orange, and 1b in magenta). Each column represents one exonic SNP at the Ace locus. Reference alleles (M252) are colored in dark gray and alternative alleles in light gray. The four previously reported resistant mutations I161V, G265A, F330Y, and G368A [7] are highlighted in orange, with I161V/G265A/F330Y being specific to haplotype class 1a. c Single-dose bioassays for malathion (left column) and propoxur (right column) for the reconstituted ancestral population (anc) and five evolved replicates from the hot regime (ev-1 to ev-5, generation 132). Bars show the average mortality (24 h after insecticide exposure) for each experimental population; the error bars show the standard error of the mean

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