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Fig. 2 | BMC Biology

Fig. 2

From: Protein assembly systems in natural and synthetic biology

Fig. 2

Protein assemblies play important roles in a variety of critical cellular processes. a In eukaryotic transcription, co-activators and transcription (txn.) factors form highly dynamic protein condensates that recruit RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II) and drive robust gene activation. b RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and RNAs coalesce to form RNP granules, which serve different RNA processing functions, such as mRNA storage and degradation, ribosome biogenesis, and localized translation. In one intriguing example, prion-like aggregation of CPEB3 promotes translation in activated synapses to potentiate long-term memory. c Higher-order assemblies play key roles in innate immunity. For example, prion-like polymerization of the MAVS adaptor protein in response to viral infection leads to amplification and stabilization of the antiviral response. d In yeast, stochastic switching between [prion] and [PRION+] states in a population of cells enables phenotypic diversification and may promote survival in uncertain environments. Figure adapted from Fig. 1B in [136]. In prion nomenclature, brackets denote non-Mendalian inheritance and capital letters denote dominance in crosses

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