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Fig. 1 | BMC Biology

Fig. 1

From: A metabolic switch regulates the transition between growth and diapause in C. elegans

Fig. 1

DAF-16 mediates the switch to low metabolic rate in dauer formation but does not directly induce dauer morphogenesis. a Signaling pathways in dauer formation. In the absence of insulin-like peptides, DAF-2 is suppressed, leading to the activation of DAF-16. Dauer-inducing pheromones lower the production of DA (dafachronic acid) by DAF-9, resulting in activated DAF-12. DAF-16 stimulates DAF-12 by inhibiting DAF-9. DAF-12 also activates DAF-16. DAF-16 and DAF-12 control subsets of genes X′Y′Z′ and X″Y″Z″, respectively. b Continuous measurement of the heat flow by wild-type (N2) worms undergoing reproductive growth on cholesterol or dauer formation on 4-MS (4-methylated sterol). Median heat flow of biological replicates from one experiment, smoothed using generalized additive models. Additional file 1: Fig. S1a displays biological replicates from various experiments. c Formation of L3 arrested larvae of daf-2;daf-12 or DA-fed daf-2 at the restrictive temperature. Inhibition of DAF-2 activates DAF-16. DAF-16 inhibits DAF-9, but this effect is neutralized by daf-12 mutations or treatment with exogenous DA. d Heat flow of daf-2, daf-2;daf-12, and daf-2;daf-16 grown at 25 °C. Median heat flow of biological replicates from one experiment, smoothed using generalized additive models. Additional file 1: Fig. S1c displays biological replicates from various experiments. e Transmission electron micrographs of cross-sections of an L3 larva of daf-2 grown at 15 °C, a daf-2 dauer larva grown at 25 °C, and a daf-2;daf-12 arrested larva grown at 25 °C. Gut lumen: central panels and large rectangles in upper panels. Cuticle: lower panels and small rectangles in upper panels. Lipid droplets: arrowheads. Dauer-specific alae: arrows. Striated layer of dauer cuticle: bracket. Scale bars correspond to 5 μm (upper panels), 1 μm (central panels), and 0.5 μm (lower panels). Representative images of at least five animals per condition

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