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Table 1 Demographic characteristics and clinical features of volunteers with relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS) experimentally infected with the hookworm, Necator americanus (N+), or placebo-treated (PBO), included in the present study

From: Experimental infection with the hookworm, Necator americanus, is associated with stable gut microbial diversity in human volunteers with relapsing multiple sclerosis

Patient characteristics N+ (n = 24) PBO (n = 26)
Demographic characteristics   
 Age (years, standard deviation) 45.4 (8.8) 45.8 (10.9)
 Gender (no. of subjects, %)   
  Female 17 (70.9%) 19 (73.1%)
  Male 7 (29.1%) 7 (26.9%)
 Ethnicity (white, %) 23 (95.8) 24 (92.3)
Clinical features   
 Mean EDSS score at Tpre (range) 3.1 (1.5–5) 3.1 (1.5–5)
 Mean EDSS change during the trial −0.08 +0.17
 Previous DMT   
  Glatiramer acetate 1 2
  IFN-beta 5 2
 DMT in the 90 days prior to Tpre 0 0
 Months from last DMT (average) 96.6 63.3
 Prior steroid treatment*
(*short course 3–5d)
8 7
 Steroids in the 60 days prior to baseline 0 0
 Steroids in the 90 days prior to baseline 1 1
 Months from last steroid treatment (average) 63.7 112.2
Clinical and/or radiological relapses   
 Clinical relapses (including MRI activity) 3 5
 Radiological relapses (MRI activity only) 7 12
  1. Tpre, 1 week prior to experimental hookworm infection/placebo treatment; EDSS, Expanded Disability Status Scale; DMT, disease-modifying therapies; MRI, magnetic resonance imaging