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Fig. 4. | BMC Biology

Fig. 4.

From: Global population genetic structure and demographic trajectories of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens

Fig. 4.

Inferred global distribution dynamics of Hermetia illucens genetic clusters. Pie charts represent proportions of individuals sampled in major geographic regions and assigned to genetic clusters according to Fig. 1 (see also Table 2 and Table S6, Additional file 2). Pie diameters correspond to sample sizes and pies comprising multiple samples reflect whole regions (see Table S10, Additional file 2, for more detail). a Map depicting biogeographically informative wild and/or captive populations as indicated according to the symbols plotted on starting points referring to major geographic regions. Colonisation routes, as inferred from ABC analyses (Figure S6, Tables S11-13, Additional file 2), are indicated by schematically simplified trajectories. Indigenous range expansions are shown by solid arrows and dispersal to non-native regions are differentiated to show founder events from single sources (dashed-dotted arrows), admixture between demographically independent introductions (dashed arrows), and serial colonisations (dotted arrows). Origins mostly refer to whole regions rather than specific locations. b Map depicting exclusively captive population pools from entire continents of North America, Europe, Africa and Asia, and inferred major trading directions of domesticated strains and their introgressants of clusters 1–5 (see Table S10, Additional file 2, and main text for more detail)

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