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Table 2 Characteristics of black soldier fly populations assigned to distinct genetic clusters

From: Global population genetic structure and demographic trajectories of the black soldier fly, Hermetia illucens

Cluster (K = 16) No. Pops Geographic origin, provenance status, indicated admixture and traceable breeding history
1 25 Captive North American populations plus recent introductions thereof in Europe and Africa (exclusively captive)
2 15 Captive European and African populations (derived from captive North American populations introduced around 2005) plus introgressed wild African populations
3 7 Captive European populations (recent breeding programme: captive North American origin)
4 3 Captive Asian populations (recent breeding programme: captive North American origin introgressed by wild Asian populations)
5 14 Captive and wild Asian and captive European populations (hybrids between wild Asian and captive North American populations)
6 15 Wild and captive Asian populations plus admixed captive Australian-Polynesian populations
7 4 Wild and captive Australian populations (west)
8 4 Captive Australian populations (east)
9 3 Wild and captive Australian-Polynesian and wild Central American (Caribbean) populations
10 5 Wild European populations (west)
11 10 Wild African populations (south-east)
12 8 Wild and captive South American populations (central-east)
13 7 Wild African populations (west)
14 8 Wild and captive South American (north-west) and wild Central American (south) plus wild European (south-east) populations
15 12 Wild and captive Central America (central regions) and wild European (south) populations
16 10 Wild North American (west, south-east), wild Central American (north), wild and captive African (central-east) populations plus admixed wild European (south-east), captive Asian and captive Australian-Polynesian populations
  1. Numbers of populations assigned to each of the 16 clusters (Fig. 1) based on the majority of individuals, including the influence of admixture (if detected), relevant information on geographic origin, occurrence in the wild and/or captivity (provenance), and breeding history if traceable (see Fig. 3, Table S4, Additional file 2). For genetic diversity and pairwise differentiation of inferred genetic clusters, independent of sampling populations, see Table S6, Additional file 2