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Table 1 Affected non-sexual phenotypes by Y chromosome in mammals

From: Sex-limited chromosomes and non-reproductive traits

Phenotype Mechanism of action Species References
Nervous system
 Aggression MSY Human [16,17,18,19,20], but see [21]
Mainly MSY acting through increased testosterone Mouse [22,23,24,25,26,27,28]
MSY acting through increased tesosterone and decreased serotonin Rat [29]
 Alcoholism Y chromosome haplogroups Human [30]
 Alzheimer’s disease LOY Human [31, 32]
 Anxiety Chromosome Y consomic strains (also imprinting the daughter’s genome, thus decreasing anxiety) Mouse [33, 34]
 Autism Extra Y or variation in it (SRY and NLGN4Y in particular) Human [13, 35, 36], but see [37]
Sry in interaction with the genetic background on β-endorphin levels Mouse [38]
 Chemosensory system MSY (chromosome Y consomic strains) Mouse [39, 40]
 Dopamine system SRY increases catecholamine synthesis and metabolism Human [41]
MSY through tesosterone in hippocampus Mouse [42,43,44]
Chromosome Y consomic strains (Sry1) Rat [45]
 Hearing impairment DFNA49 insertion from chromosome 1 Human [46]
 Intelligence Reduction due to extra Y, p.I679V NLGN4Y Human [17, 19, 21, 47]
 Macrocephaly and brain size Y chromosome increases size Human [14, 48]
 Motor functioning Larger or extra Y as well as SRY through regulation of monoamine oxidase A Human [13, 19, 36, 49]
Possibly through Sry Rat [50]
 Norepinephrine concentration Possibly through Sry Rat [50, 51]
 Parkinson’s disease SRY as a risk factor Human and rat [52]
 Response acquisition Y epistatically interacts with autosome 9 Mouse [42]
 Schizophrenia LOY Human [53, 54]
 Stress Y, possibly through Sry, interacts with other chromosomes Rat [50, 55]
 Suicide LOY in blood Human [56]
Cardiovascular and immune system
 Atherosclerosis MSY (mainly lower expression of UTY and Lnc-KDM5D-4) Human [57,58,59]
 Cardiomyocyte size Due to different responses to testosterone Mouse [60,61,62]
 Coronary artery disease MSY (mainly lower expression of UTY) Human [57, 59, 63]
 Hypertension Protective role through increased expression of BMPR2 via SRY Human [64]
Y has a protective role Mouse [65, 66]
Through Sry affecting several renin-angiotensin and SNS gene promoter activity Rat [50, 67,68,69], but not replicated [70]
 Lipid profile Y haplotypes (possible gene - lnc-KDM5D-4) Human [57, 71,72,73]
Chromosome Y consomic strains Mouse [74]
Chromosome Y consomic strains Rat [75, 76]
 Na and insulin levels Chromosome Y consomic strains (Sry3) Rat [77]
 Autoimmunity LOY in blood Human [78,79,80,81]
Copy number variation of Sly and Rbmy and gain of telomeric end of the X Mouse [82,83,84,85,86,87]
 Immune cell abnormalities Independent of Sry and IFN-αβ Mouse [88,89,90]
Loss of CD99 on the PAR Human [91]
 Viral infections Haplogroup I Human HIV-1 [92]
Chromosome Y consomic strains (independent of Sry) Mouse Coxsackievirus B3 [89, 93], influenza A [94]
Other traits
 Albuminuria Chromosome Y consomic strains Rat [95]
 Cancer LOY, aneuploidy, misexpression of MSY genes in somatic cells, microdeletions Human [96,97,98,99,100]
Loss of UTY Mouse [101]
Sry as an oncogene Rat [102]
 Baldness SRY in the scalp Human [103]
 Body size MSY increases height independently of sex hormones Human [104,105,106,107]
Y epistatically interacts with autosome 9 independently of Sry Mouse [42, 108, 109]
 Diabetes LOY Human [78]
 Glucose metabolism Y interacts with chromosome 2 Rat [76]
 Hirschsprung disease SRY represses RET Human [110]
 Hypertelorism Extra Y Human [48]
 Liver damage LOY Human [96]
 Macular degeneration LOY in blood Human [111]
 Mortality Extra Y and LOY in blood decreases lifespan, while hypermethylation of Y has a protective mechanism Human and other mammals [78, 112,113,114,115]
 Sensitivity to testosterone MSY Mouse [22, 60, 62]
 Tooth growth Genes on the Yqll promote Human [116]