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  1. Content type: Research article

    Sleep is characterized by extended periods of quiescence and reduced responsiveness to sensory stimuli. Animals ranging from insects to mammals adapt to environments with limited food by suppressing sleep and ...

    Authors: Masato Yoshizawa, Beatriz G Robinson, Erik R Duboué, Pavel Masek, James B Jaggard, Kelly E O’Quin, Richard L Borowsky, William R Jeffery and Alex C Keene

    Citation: BMC Biology 2015 13:15

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  2. Content type: Research article

    How tissue and organ sizes are specified is one of the great unsolved mysteries in biology. Experiments and mathematical modeling implicate feedback control of cell lineage progression, but a broad understandi...

    Authors: Gentian Buzi, Arthur D Lander and Mustafa Khammash

    Citation: BMC Biology 2015 13:13

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Macrophages have many functions in development and homeostasis as well as innate immunity. Recent studies in mammals suggest that cells arising in the yolk sac give rise to self-renewing macrophage populations...

    Authors: Valerie Garceau, Adam Balic, Carla Garcia-Morales, Kristin A Sauter, Mike J McGrew, Jacqueline Smith, Lonneke Vervelde, Adrian Sherman, Troy E Fuller, Theodore Oliphant, John A Shelley, Raksha Tiwari, Thomas L Wilson, Cosmin Chintoan-Uta, Dave W Burt, Mark P Stevens…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2015 13:12

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Variations in floral display represent one of the core features associated with the transition from allogamy to autogamy in angiosperms. The promotion of autogamy under stress conditions suggests the potential...

    Authors: Sherif Sherif, Islam El-Sharkawy, Jaideep Mathur, Pratibha Ravindran, Prakash Kumar, Gopinadhan Paliyath and Subramanian Jayasankar

    Citation: BMC Biology 2015 13:11

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  5. Content type: Research Article

    Normal brain function depends on the development of appropriate patterns of neural connections. A critical role in guiding axons to their targets during neural development is played by neuronal growth cones. T...

    Authors: Geoffrey J Goodhill, Richard A Faville, Daniel J Sutherland, Brendan A Bicknell, Andrew W Thompson, Zac Pujic, Biao Sun, Elizabeth M Kita and Ethan K Scott

    Citation: BMC Biology 2015 13:10

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  6. Content type: Opinion

    In this Opinion article, we summarize how changes in DNA methylation occur during aging in mammals and discuss examples of how such events may contribute to the aging process. We explore mechanisms that could ...

    Authors: Marc Jung and Gerd P Pfeifer

    Citation: BMC Biology 2015 13:7

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  7. Content type: Research article

    The nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans, in which loss-of-function mutants and RNA interference (RNAi) models are available, is a model organism useful for analyzing effects of genes on various life phenomena, i...

    Authors: Masayuki Hamakawa, Takayuki Uozumi, Naoko Ueda, Yuichi Iino and Takaaki Hirotsu

    Citation: BMC Biology 2015 13:6

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Tissue-specific RNA plasticity broadly impacts the development, tissue identity and adaptability of all organisms, but changes in composition, expression levels and its impact on gene regulation in different s...

    Authors: Stephen M Blazie, Cody Babb, Henry Wilky, Alan Rawls, Jin G Park and Marco Mangone

    Citation: BMC Biology 2015 13:4

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  9. Content type: Research article

    The discharge of the Cnidarian stinging organelle, the nematocyst, is one of the fastest processes in biology and involves volume changes of the highly pressurised (150 bar) capsule of up to 50%. Hitherto, the...

    Authors: Anna Beckmann, Senbo Xiao, Jochen P Müller, Davide Mercadante, Timm Nüchter, Niels Kröger, Florian Langhojer, Wolfgang Petrich, Thomas W Holstein, Martin Benoit, Frauke Gräter and Suat Özbek

    Citation: BMC Biology 2015 13:3

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumenal protein thiol redox balance resists dramatic variation in unfolded protein load imposed by diverse physiological challenges including compromise in the key upstream oxidases....

    Authors: Edward Avezov, Tasuku Konno, Alisa Zyryanova, Weiyue Chen, Romain Laine, Ana Crespillo-Casado, Eduardo Pinho Melo, Ryo Ushioda, Kazuhiro Nagata, Clemens F Kaminski, Heather P Harding and David Ron

    Citation: BMC Biology 2015 13:2

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Adenosine-to-inosine RNA editing is a highly conserved process that post-transcriptionally modifies mRNA, generating proteomic diversity, particularly within the nervous system of metazoans. Transcripts encodi...

    Authors: Leila E Rieder, Yiannis A Savva, Matthew A Reyna, Yao-Jen Chang, Jacquelyn S Dorsky, Ali Rezaei and Robert A Reenan

    Citation: BMC Biology 2015 13:1

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Despite being a fundamental biological problem the control of body size and proportions during development remains poorly understood, although it is accepted that the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway h...

    Authors: Marta Madon-Simon, Michael Cowley, Alastair S Garfield, Kim Moorwood, Steven R Bauer and Andrew Ward

    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:771

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  13. Content type: Research article

    The public health threats imposed by toxoplasmosis worldwide and by malaria in sub-Saharan countries are directly associated with the capacity of their related causative agents Toxoplasma and Plasmodium, respe...

    Authors: Marion Bichet, Candie Joly, Ahmed Hadj Henni, Thomas Guilbert, Marie Xémard, Vincent Tafani, Vanessa Lagal, Guillaume Charras and Isabelle Tardieux

    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:773

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  14. Content type: Research article

    Nucleosome organization determines the chromatin state, which in turn controls gene expression or silencing. Nucleosome remodeling occurs during somatic cell reprogramming, but it is still unclear to what degr...

    Authors: Yu Tao, Weisheng Zheng, Yonghua Jiang, Guitao Ding, Xinfeng Hou, Yitao Tang, Yueying Li, Shuai Gao, Gang Chang, Xiaobai Zhang, Wenqiang Liu, Xiaochen Kou, Hong Wang, Cizhong Jiang and Shaorong Gao

    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:109

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  15. Content type: Research article

    As individual naïve CD4 T lymphocytes circulate in the body after emerging from the thymus, they are likely to have individually varying microenvironmental interactions even in the absence of stimulation via s...

    Authors: Sanket Rane, Rituparna Das, Vidya Ranganathan, Savit Prabhu, Arundhoti Das, Hamid Mattoo, Jeannine Marie Durdik, Anna George, Satyajit Rath and Vineeta Bal

    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:106

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Almost all cells display circadian rhythms, approximately 24-hour period changes in their biochemistry, physiology or behavior. These rhythms are orchestrated by an endogenous circadian clock whose mechanism i...

    Authors: Sougata Roy, Mathieu Beauchemin, Steve Dagenais-Bellefeuille, Louis Letourneau, Mario Cappadocia and David Morse

    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:107

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Archaea share fundamental properties with bacteria and eukaryotes. Yet, they also possess unique attributes, which largely remain poorly characterized. Haloferax volcanii is an aerobic, moderately halophilic arch...

    Authors: Saija Kiljunen, Maria I Pajunen, Kieran Dilks, Stefanie Storf, Mechthild Pohlschroder and Harri Savilahti

    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:103

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  18. Content type: Research article

    G-quadruplexes (G4s) are stable non-canonical DNA secondary structures consisting of stacked arrays of four guanines, each held together by Hoogsteen hydrogen bonds. Sequences with the ability to form these st...

    Authors: Nasim Sabouri, John A Capra and Virginia A Zakian

    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:101

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  19. Content type: Interview

    Rino Rappuoli is a graduate of Siena University, where he also earned his PhD before moving to the Sclavo Research Center, the Italian vaccine institute, also in Siena. He then spent two years in the USA, most...

    Authors: Rino Rappuoli

    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:100

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  20. Content type: Research article

    The environmental regulation of development can result in the production of distinct phenotypes from the same genotype and provide the means for organisms to cope with environmental heterogeneity. The effect o...

    Authors: Ana Rita A Mateus, Manuel Marques-Pita, Vicencio Oostra, Elvira Lafuente, Paul M Brakefield, Bas J Zwaan and Patrícia Beldade

    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:97

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Emerging studies of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) raise new prospects for neurodegenerative disease modeling and cell replacement therapies. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms underlying the commit...

    Authors: Juan Yang, Yu Tang, Hui Liu, Fang Guo, Jun Ni and Weidong Le

    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:95

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  22. Content type: Research article

    Plants have inducible defenses to combat attacking organisms. Hence, some herbivores have adapted to suppress these defenses. Suppression of plant defenses has been shown to benefit herbivores by boosting thei...

    Authors: Joris J Glas, Juan M Alba, Sauro Simoni, Carlos A Villarroel, Marije Stoops, Bernardus CJ Schimmel, Robert C Schuurink, Maurice W Sabelis and Merijn R Kant

    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:98

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  23. Content type: Research article

    The study of microbial communities has been revolutionised in recent years by the widespread adoption of culture independent analytical techniques such as 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metagenomics. One potenti...

    Authors: Susannah J Salter, Michael J Cox, Elena M Turek, Szymon T Calus, William O Cookson, Miriam F Moffatt, Paul Turner, Julian Parkhill, Nicholas J Loman and Alan W Walker

    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:87

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Parasympathetic signaling has been inferred to regulate epithelial branching as well as organ regeneration and tumor development. However, the relative contribution of local nerve contact versus secreted signa...

    Authors: Danielle V Bower, Hyung-Kook Lee, Rusty Lansford, Kai Zinn, David Warburton, Scott E Fraser and Edwin C Jesudason

    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:92

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Palmitoylation is a 16-carbon lipid post-translational modification that increases protein hydrophobicity. This form of protein fatty acylation is emerging as a critical regulatory modification for multiple as...

    Authors: Nicholas M Chesarino, Jocelyn C Hach, James L Chen, Balyn W Zaro, Murugesan VS Rajaram, Joanne Turner, Larry S Schlesinger, Matthew R Pratt, Howard C Hang and Jacob S Yount

    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:91

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Evolutionary transitions from outcrossing between individuals to selfing are partly responsible for the great diversity of animal and plant reproduction systems. The hypothesis of `reproductive assurance’ sugg...

    Authors: Ioannis Theologidis, Ivo M Chelo, Christine Goy and Henrique Teotónio

    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:93

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Rodent malaria parasites (RMP) are used extensively as models of human malaria. Draft RMP genomes have been published for Plasmodium yoelii, P. berghei ANKA (PbA) and P. chabaudi AS (PcAS). Although availability ...

    Authors: Thomas D Otto, Ulrike Böhme, Andrew P Jackson, Martin Hunt, Blandine Franke-Fayard, Wieteke A M Hoeijmakers, Agnieszka A Religa, Lauren Robertson, Mandy Sanders, Solabomi A Ogun, Deirdre Cunningham, Annette Erhart, Oliver Billker, Shahid M Khan, Hendrik G Stunnenberg, Jean Langhorne…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:86

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Lake Tanganyika, an ancient lake in the Great Rift Valley, is famous for the adaptive radiation of cichlids. Five tribes of the Cichlidae family have acquired herbivory, with five ecomorphs: grazers, browsers,...

    Authors: Hiroki Hata, Akifumi S Tanabe, Satoshi Yamamoto, Hirokazu Toju, Masanori Kohda and Michio Hori

    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:90

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  29. Content type: Research article

    Assembled RNA polymerase III (Pol III) complexes exert local effects on chromatin processes, including influencing transcription of neighboring RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcribed genes. These properties ha...

    Authors: Qing Wang, Chance M Nowak, Asawari Korde, Dong-Ha Oh, Maheshi Dassanayake and David Donze

    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:89

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Although the origin of the eukaryotic cell has long been recognized as the single most profound change in cellular organization during the evolution of life on earth, this transition remains poorly understood....

    Authors: David A Baum and Buzz Baum

    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:76

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  31. Content type: Commentary

    Metformin has been a first-line treatment for type II diabetes mellitus for decades and is the most widely prescribed antidiabetic drug. Retrospective studies have found that metformin treatment is associated ...

    Authors: Alba Luengo, Lucas B Sullivan and Matthew G Vander Heiden

    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:82

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  32. Content type: Methodology article

    The inheritance of most human diseases and agriculturally important traits is controlled by many genes with small effects. Identifying these genes, while simultaneously controlling false positives, is challeng...

    Authors: Meng Li, Xiaolei Liu, Peter Bradbury, Jianming Yu, Yuan-Ming Zhang, Rory J Todhunter, Edward S Buckler and Zhiwu Zhang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:73

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  33. Content type: Research article

    It is generally the case that fast transmission at neural synapses is mediated by small molecule neurotransmitters. The simple nervous system of the cnidarian Hydra, however, contains a large repertoire of neurop...

    Authors: Marc Assmann, Anne Kuhn, Stefan Dürrnagel, Thomas W Holstein and Stefan Gründer

    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:84

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  34. Content type: Research article

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are a special class of small RNAs that provide defense against transposable elements in animal germline cells. In Drosophila, germline piRNAs are thought to be processed at a unique...

    Authors: Veena S Patil, Amit Anand, Alisha Chakrabarti and Toshie Kai

    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:61

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  35. Content type: Commentary

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) protect animal germlines from the deleterious effects of transposon activity. Unlike other small RNA classes like microRNAs (miRNAs) and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), an excep...

    Authors: Zhaolin Yang and Ramesh S Pillai

    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:77

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  36. Content type: Research article

    Nodal signalling is an absolute requirement for normal mesoderm and endoderm formation in vertebrate embryos, yet the transcriptional networks acting directly downstream of Nodal and the extent to which they a...

    Authors: Andrew C Nelson, Stephen J Cutty, Marie Niini, Derek L Stemple, Paul Flicek, Corinne Houart, Ashley EE Bruce and Fiona C Wardle

    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:81

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  37. Content type: Research article

    tRFs, 14 to 32 nt long single-stranded RNA derived from mature or precursor tRNAs, are a recently discovered class of small RNA that have been found to be present in diverse organisms at read counts comparable...

    Authors: Pankaj Kumar, Jordan Anaya, Suresh B Mudunuri and Anindya Dutta

    Citation: BMC Biology 2014 12:78

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