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  1. Content type: Research article

    The condition of many marine mammals varies with fluctuations in productivity and food supply in the ocean basin where they forage. Prey is impacted by physical environmental variables such as cyclic warming t...

    Authors: Burney J Le Boeuf and Daniel E Crocker

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:9

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Parasites exploit sophisticated strategies to evade host immunity that require both adaptation of existing genes and evolution of new gene families. We have addressed this question by testing the immunological...

    Authors: Natalia Gomez-Escobar, Clare Bennett, Lidia Prieto-Lafuente, Toni Aebischer, Clare C Blackburn and Rick M Maizels

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:8

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  3. Content type: Research article

    Since the initial publication of its complete genome sequence, Arabidopsis thaliana has become more important than ever as a model for plant research. However, the initial genome annotation was submitted by multi...

    Authors: Brian J Haas, Jennifer R Wortman, Catherine M Ronning, Linda I Hannick, Roger K Smith Jr, Rama Maiti, Agnes P Chan, Chunhui Yu, Maryam Farzad, Dongying Wu, Owen White and Christopher D Town

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:7

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  4. Content type: Research article

    It is a matter of ongoing debate whether a universal species concept is possible for bacteria. Indeed, it is not clear whether closely related isolates of bacteria typically form discrete genotypic clusters th...

    Authors: William P Hanage, Christophe Fraser and Brian G Spratt

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:6

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Because "laws of nature" do not exist in ecology, much of the foundations of community ecology rely on broad statistical generalisations. One of the strongest generalisations is the positive relationship betwe...

    Authors: Jussi Päivinen, Alessandro Grapputo, Veijo Kaitala, Atte Komonen, Janne S Kotiaho, Kimmo Saarinen and Niklas Wahlberg

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:5

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Excessive sequential stereotypy of behavioral patterns (sequential super-stereotypy) in Tourette's syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is thought to involve dysfunction in nigrostriatal dopamine s...

    Authors: Kent C Berridge, J Wayne Aldridge, Kimberly R Houchard and Xiaoxi Zhuang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:4

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  7. Content type: Research article

    The physiological regulation of G protein-coupled receptors, through desensitization and internalization, modulates the length of the receptor signal and may influence the development of tolerance and dependen...

    Authors: Kimberly Scearce-Levie, Michael D Lieberman, Heather H Elliott and Bruce R Conklin

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:3

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  8. Content type: Research article

    The availability of abundant sequence data from key model organisms has made large scale studies of molecular evolution an exciting possibility. Here we use full length cDNA alignments comprising more than 700...

    Authors: Frank Grønlund Jørgensen, Asger Hobolth, Henrik Hornshøj, Christian Bendixen, Merete Fredholm and Mikkel Heide Schierup

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:2

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  9. Content type: Research article

    Drosophila discs-large (DLG) is the sole representative of a large class of mammalian MAGUKs, including human DLG, SAP 97, SAP102, and PSD-95. MAGUKs are thought to be critical for postsynaptic assembly at gluta...

    Authors: Kaiyun Chen and David E Featherstone

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:1

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Tumour regression observed in many conditional mouse models following oncogene inactivation provides the impetus to develop, and a platform to preclinically evaluate, novel therapeutics to inactivate specific ...

    Authors: Stella Pelengaris, Sylvie Abouna, Linda Cheung, Vasiliki Ifandi, Sevasti Zervou and Michael Khan

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:26

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Does the C. elegans nervous system contain multi-neuron computational modules that perform stereotypical functions? We attempt to answer this question by searching for recurring multi-neuron inter-connectivity pa...

    Authors: Markus Reigl, Uri Alon and Dmitri B Chklovskii

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:25

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Gab1 is a docking protein that recruits phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3 kinase) and other effector proteins in response to the activation of many receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). As the autophosphorylatio...

    Authors: Dawn R Mattoon, Betty Lamothe, Irit Lax and Joseph Schlessinger

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:24

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  13. Content type: Research article

    Our aim was to determine if pramipexole, a D3 preferring agonist, effectively reduced dopamine neuron and fiber loss in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model when given at intraperit...

    Authors: Jeffrey N Joyce, Cheryl Woolsey, Han Ryoo, Sabine Borwege and Diane Hagner

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:22

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  14. Content type: Research article

    In mammals, there is evidence suggesting that methyl-CpG binding proteins may play a significant role in histone modification through their association with modification complexes that can deacetylate and/or m...

    Authors: Stanley M Gartler, Kartik R Varadarajan, Ping Luo, Theresa K Canfield, Jeff Traynor, Uta Francke and R Scott Hansen

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:21

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  15. Content type: Research article

    Focal clusters of slow wave activity in the delta frequency range (1–4 Hz), as measured by magnetencephalography (MEG), are usually located in the vicinity of structural damage in the brain. Such oscillations ...

    Authors: Marcus Meinzer, Thomas Elbert, Christian Wienbruch, Daniela Djundja, Gabriela Barthel and Brigitte Rockstroh

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:20

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  16. Content type: Research article

    Joining a model for the molecular evolution of a protein family to the paleontological and geological records (geobiology), and then to the chemical structures of substrates, products, and protein folds, is em...

    Authors: Eric A Gaucher, Logan G Graddy, Tang Li, Rosalia CM Simmen, Frank A Simmen, David R Schreiber, David A Liberles, Christine M Janis and Steven A Benner

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:19

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Bistability and hysteresis are increasingly recognized as major properties of regulatory networks governing numerous biological phenomena, such as differentiation and cell cycle progression. The full scope of ...

    Authors: Stéphane Graziani, Philippe Silar and Marie-Josée Daboussi

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:18

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  18. Content type: Research article

    The callipyge mutation is located within an imprinted gene cluster on ovine chromosome 18. The callipyge trait exhibits polar overdominant inheritance due to the fact that only heterozygotes inheriting a mutan...

    Authors: Christopher A Bidwell, Lauren N Kramer, Allison C Perkins, Tracy S Hadfield, Diane E Moody and Noelle E Cockett

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:17

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  19. Content type: Research article

    The growing conviction that lateral gene transfer plays a significant role in prokaryote genealogy opens up a need for comprehensive evaluations of gene-enzyme systems on a case-by-case basis. Genes of tryptop...

    Authors: Gary Xie, Carol A Bonner, Jian Song, Nemat O Keyhani and Roy A Jensen

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:15

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  20. Content type: Research article

    The observation of multiple genetic markers in situ by optical microscopy and their relevance to the study of three-dimensional (3D) chromosomal organization in the nucleus have been greatly developed in the last...

    Authors: Tony Chih Yuan Chuang, Sharareh Moshir, Yuval Garini, Alice Ya-Chun Chuang, Ian T Young, Bart Vermolen, Richard van den Doel, Virginie Mougey, Mathilde Perrin, Martina Braun, Paul Donald Kerr, Thierry Fest, Petra Boukamp and Sabine Mai

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:12

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  21. Content type: Research article

    DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) is essential for S-phase replication, DNA damage repair and checkpoint control in yeast. A pol2-Y831A mutation leading to a tyrosine to alanine change in the Pol ε active site does not ca...

    Authors: Youri I Pavlov, Satoko Maki, Hisaji Maki and Thomas A Kunkel

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:11

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2007 5:27

  22. Content type: Research article

    The 5' end of the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) RNA around the primer-binding site forms a series of RNA secondary stem/loop structures (U5-IR stem, TψC interaction region, U5-leader stem) that are required for eff...

    Authors: Michael Johnson, Shannon Morris, Aiping Chen, Ed Stavnezer and Jonathan Leis

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:8

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  23. Content type: Research article

    Runx transcription factors are important regulators of metazoan development. The sea urchin Runx gene SpRunt was previously identified as a trans-activator of the CyIIIa actin gene, a differentiation marker of la...

    Authors: James A Coffman, Carrie Dickey-Sims, Jeffrey S Haug, John J McCarthy and Anthony J Robertson

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:6

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Excessive proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and leukocytes within the artery wall is a major event in the development of atherosclerosis. The growth suppressor p27kip1 associates with several cyclin-d...

    Authors: Pelayo González, Antonio Díez-Juan, Eliecer Coto, Victoria Álvarez, Julian R Reguero, Alberto Batalla and Vicente Andrés

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:5

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  25. Content type: Research article

    The bacterial ribosome is a primary target of several classes of antibiotics. Investigation of the structure of the ribosomal subunits in complex with different antibiotics can reveal the mode of inhibition of...

    Authors: Jörg M Harms, Frank Schlünzen, Paola Fucini, Heike Bartels and Ada Yonath

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:4

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Phylogenetic analyses of jawed vertebrates based on mitochondrial sequences often result in confusing inferences which are obviously inconsistent with generally accepted trees. In particular, in a hypothesis b...

    Authors: Kanae Kikugawa, Kazutaka Katoh, Shigehiro Kuraku, Hiroshi Sakurai, Osamu Ishida, Naoyuki Iwabe and Takashi Miyata

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:3

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Glutaminyl cyclase (QC) forms the pyroglutamyl residue at the amino terminus of numerous secretory peptides and proteins. We previously proposed the mammalian QC has some features in common with zinc aminopept...

    Authors: Rachell E Booth, Simon C Lovell, Stephanie A Misquitta and Robert C Bateman Jr

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:2

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  28. Content type: Research article

    The earliest fossil evidence of terrestrial animal activity is from the Ordovician, ~450 million years ago (Ma). However, there are earlier animal fossils, and most molecular clocks suggest a deep origin of an...

    Authors: Davide Pisani, Laura L Poling, Maureen Lyons-Weiler and S Blair Hedges

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:1

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  29. Content type: Research article

    RNA silencing processes are widespread in almost all eukaryotic organisms. They have various functions including genome protection, and the control of gene expression, development and heterochromatin formation...

    Authors: Mickaël Durand-Dubief and Philippe Bastin

    Citation: BMC Biology 2003 1:2

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  30. Content type: Research article

    The assessment of data reproducibility is essential for application of microarray technology to exploration of biological pathways and disease states. Technical variability in data analysis largely depends on ...

    Authors: Vikram Budhraja, Edward Spitznagel, W Timothy Schaiff and Yoel Sadovsky

    Citation: BMC Biology 2003 1:1

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