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  1. Content type: Research article

    The phylum Chlorophyta contains the majority of the green algae and is divided into four classes. The basal position of the Prasinophyceae has been well documented, but the divergence order of the Ulvophyceae,...

    Authors: Jean-François Pombert, Claude Lemieux and Monique Turmel

    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:3

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  2. Content type: Research article

    Stem cells divide to reproduce themselves and produce differentiated progeny. A fundamental problem in human biology has been the inability to measure how often stem cells divide. Although it is impossible to ...

    Authors: Jung Yeon Kim, Simon Tavaré and Darryl Shibata

    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:2

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  3. Content type: Research article

    The provision of stress resistance diverts resources from development and reproduction and must therefore be tightly regulated. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the switch to increased stress resistance to promote surv...

    Authors: David Weinkove, Jonathan R Halstead, David Gems and Nullin Divecha

    Citation: BMC Biology 2006 4:1

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  4. Content type: Research article

    Sec8 is highly expressed in mammalian nervous systems and has been proposed to play a role in several aspects of neural development and function, including neurite outgrowth, calcium-dependent neurotransmitter...

    Authors: Faith LW Liebl, Kaiyun Chen, Julie Karr, Qi Sheng and David E Featherstone

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:27

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  5. Content type: Research article

    Toxoplasma gondii gives rise to toxoplasmosis, among the most prevalent parasitic diseases of animals and man. Transformation of the tachzyoite stage into the latent bradyzoite-cyst form underlies chronic diseas...

    Authors: Jay R Radke, Michael S Behnke, Aaron J Mackey, Josh B Radke, David S Roos and Michael W White

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:26

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  6. Content type: Research article

    Myelination requires precise control of oligodendrocyte morphology and myelin generation at each of the axons contacted by an individual cell. This control must involve the integration of extracellular cues, s...

    Authors: Inger Marie Olsen and Charles ffrench-Constant

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:25

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  7. Content type: Research article

    Recent analysis of the human and mouse genomes has shown that a substantial proportion of protein coding genes and cis-regulatory elements contain transposable element (TE) sequences, implicating TE domestication...

    Authors: Mikhail Lipatov, Kapa Lenkov, Dmitri A Petrov and Casey M Bergman

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:24

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  8. Content type: Research article

    Signaling by the Wnt family of secreted glycoproteins through their receptors, the frizzled (Fz) family of seven-pass transmembrane proteins, is critical for numerous cell fate and tissue polarity decisions du...

    Authors: Hyon J Kim, Jack R Schleiffarth, Jose Jessurun, Saulius Sumanas, Anna Petryk, Shuo Lin and Stephen C Ekker

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:23

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  9. Content type: Research article

    The Streptophyta comprise all land plants and six monophyletic groups of charophycean green algae. Phylogenetic analyses of four genes from three cellular compartments support the following branching order for...

    Authors: Monique Turmel, Christian Otis and Claude Lemieux

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:22

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  10. Content type: Research article

    Compartmentalization is a key feature of eukaryotic cells, but its evolution remains poorly understood. GTPases are the oldest enzymes that use nucleotides as substrates and they participate in a wide range of...

    Authors: Emmanuel G Reynaud, Miguel A Andrade, Fabien Bonneau, Thi Bach Nga Ly, Michael Knop, Klaus Scheffzek and Rainer Pepperkok

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:21

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  11. Content type: Research article

    Regular exercise reduces cardiovascular and metabolic disease partly through improved aerobic fitness. The determinants of exercise-induced gains in aerobic fitness in humans are not known. We have demonstrate...

    Authors: James A Timmons, Eva Jansson, Helene Fischer, Thomas Gustafsson, Paul L Greenhaff, John Ridden, Jonathan Rachman and Carl Johan Sundberg

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:19

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  12. Content type: Research article

    Runx transcription factors play critical roles in the developmental control of cell fate and contribute variously as oncoproteins and tumor suppressors to leukemia and other cancers. To discover fundamental Ru...

    Authors: Carrie Dickey-Sims, Anthony J Robertson, Dawn E Rupp, John J McCarthy and James A Coffman

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:18

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  13. Content type: Research article

    The role of centrioles in mitotic spindle function remains unclear. One approach to investigate mitotic centriole function is to ask whether mutation of centriole-associated proteins can cause genomic instabil...

    Authors: Ivan Zamora and Wallace F Marshall

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:15

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  14. Content type: Research article

    PCI/MPN domain protein complexes comprise the 19S proteasome lid, the COP9 signalosome (CSN), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 (eIF3). The eIF3 complex is thought to be composed of essential core...

    Authors: Chunshui Zhou, Fatih Arslan, Susan Wee, Srinivasan Krishnan, Alexander R Ivanov, Anna Oliva, Janet Leatherwood and Dieter A Wolf

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:14

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  15. Content type: Research article

    A key event in plant morphogenesis is the establishment of a division plane. A plant-specific microtubular preprophase band (PPB) accurately predicts the line of cell division, whereas the phragmoplast, anothe...

    Authors: Pankaj Dhonukshe, Jaideep Mathur, Martin Hülskamp and Theodorus WJ Gadella Jr

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:11

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  16. Content type: Research article

    The condition of many marine mammals varies with fluctuations in productivity and food supply in the ocean basin where they forage. Prey is impacted by physical environmental variables such as cyclic warming t...

    Authors: Burney J Le Boeuf and Daniel E Crocker

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:9

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  17. Content type: Research article

    Parasites exploit sophisticated strategies to evade host immunity that require both adaptation of existing genes and evolution of new gene families. We have addressed this question by testing the immunological...

    Authors: Natalia Gomez-Escobar, Clare Bennett, Lidia Prieto-Lafuente, Toni Aebischer, Clare C Blackburn and Rick M Maizels

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:8

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  18. Content type: Research article

    Since the initial publication of its complete genome sequence, Arabidopsis thaliana has become more important than ever as a model for plant research. However, the initial genome annotation was submitted by multi...

    Authors: Brian J Haas, Jennifer R Wortman, Catherine M Ronning, Linda I Hannick, Roger K Smith Jr, Rama Maiti, Agnes P Chan, Chunhui Yu, Maryam Farzad, Dongying Wu, Owen White and Christopher D Town

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:7

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  19. Content type: Research article

    It is a matter of ongoing debate whether a universal species concept is possible for bacteria. Indeed, it is not clear whether closely related isolates of bacteria typically form discrete genotypic clusters th...

    Authors: William P Hanage, Christophe Fraser and Brian G Spratt

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:6

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  20. Content type: Research article

    Because "laws of nature" do not exist in ecology, much of the foundations of community ecology rely on broad statistical generalisations. One of the strongest generalisations is the positive relationship betwe...

    Authors: Jussi Päivinen, Alessandro Grapputo, Veijo Kaitala, Atte Komonen, Janne S Kotiaho, Kimmo Saarinen and Niklas Wahlberg

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:5

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  21. Content type: Research article

    Excessive sequential stereotypy of behavioral patterns (sequential super-stereotypy) in Tourette's syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is thought to involve dysfunction in nigrostriatal dopamine s...

    Authors: Kent C Berridge, J Wayne Aldridge, Kimberly R Houchard and Xiaoxi Zhuang

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:4

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  22. Content type: Research article

    The physiological regulation of G protein-coupled receptors, through desensitization and internalization, modulates the length of the receptor signal and may influence the development of tolerance and dependen...

    Authors: Kimberly Scearce-Levie, Michael D Lieberman, Heather H Elliott and Bruce R Conklin

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:3

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  23. Content type: Research article

    The availability of abundant sequence data from key model organisms has made large scale studies of molecular evolution an exciting possibility. Here we use full length cDNA alignments comprising more than 700...

    Authors: Frank Grønlund Jørgensen, Asger Hobolth, Henrik Hornshøj, Christian Bendixen, Merete Fredholm and Mikkel Heide Schierup

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:2

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  24. Content type: Research article

    Drosophila discs-large (DLG) is the sole representative of a large class of mammalian MAGUKs, including human DLG, SAP 97, SAP102, and PSD-95. MAGUKs are thought to be critical for postsynaptic assembly at gluta...

    Authors: Kaiyun Chen and David E Featherstone

    Citation: BMC Biology 2005 3:1

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  25. Content type: Research article

    Tumour regression observed in many conditional mouse models following oncogene inactivation provides the impetus to develop, and a platform to preclinically evaluate, novel therapeutics to inactivate specific ...

    Authors: Stella Pelengaris, Sylvie Abouna, Linda Cheung, Vasiliki Ifandi, Sevasti Zervou and Michael Khan

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:26

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  26. Content type: Research article

    Does the C. elegans nervous system contain multi-neuron computational modules that perform stereotypical functions? We attempt to answer this question by searching for recurring multi-neuron inter-connectivity pa...

    Authors: Markus Reigl, Uri Alon and Dmitri B Chklovskii

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:25

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  27. Content type: Research article

    Gab1 is a docking protein that recruits phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI-3 kinase) and other effector proteins in response to the activation of many receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). As the autophosphorylatio...

    Authors: Dawn R Mattoon, Betty Lamothe, Irit Lax and Joseph Schlessinger

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:24

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  28. Content type: Research article

    Our aim was to determine if pramipexole, a D3 preferring agonist, effectively reduced dopamine neuron and fiber loss in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model when given at intraperit...

    Authors: Jeffrey N Joyce, Cheryl Woolsey, Han Ryoo, Sabine Borwege and Diane Hagner

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:22

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  29. Content type: Research article

    In mammals, there is evidence suggesting that methyl-CpG binding proteins may play a significant role in histone modification through their association with modification complexes that can deacetylate and/or m...

    Authors: Stanley M Gartler, Kartik R Varadarajan, Ping Luo, Theresa K Canfield, Jeff Traynor, Uta Francke and R Scott Hansen

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:21

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  30. Content type: Research article

    Focal clusters of slow wave activity in the delta frequency range (1–4 Hz), as measured by magnetencephalography (MEG), are usually located in the vicinity of structural damage in the brain. Such oscillations ...

    Authors: Marcus Meinzer, Thomas Elbert, Christian Wienbruch, Daniela Djundja, Gabriela Barthel and Brigitte Rockstroh

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:20

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  31. Content type: Research article

    Joining a model for the molecular evolution of a protein family to the paleontological and geological records (geobiology), and then to the chemical structures of substrates, products, and protein folds, is em...

    Authors: Eric A Gaucher, Logan G Graddy, Tang Li, Rosalia CM Simmen, Frank A Simmen, David R Schreiber, David A Liberles, Christine M Janis and Steven A Benner

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:19

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  32. Content type: Research article

    Bistability and hysteresis are increasingly recognized as major properties of regulatory networks governing numerous biological phenomena, such as differentiation and cell cycle progression. The full scope of ...

    Authors: Stéphane Graziani, Philippe Silar and Marie-Josée Daboussi

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:18

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  33. Content type: Research article

    The callipyge mutation is located within an imprinted gene cluster on ovine chromosome 18. The callipyge trait exhibits polar overdominant inheritance due to the fact that only heterozygotes inheriting a mutan...

    Authors: Christopher A Bidwell, Lauren N Kramer, Allison C Perkins, Tracy S Hadfield, Diane E Moody and Noelle E Cockett

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:17

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  34. Content type: Research article

    The growing conviction that lateral gene transfer plays a significant role in prokaryote genealogy opens up a need for comprehensive evaluations of gene-enzyme systems on a case-by-case basis. Genes of tryptop...

    Authors: Gary Xie, Carol A Bonner, Jian Song, Nemat O Keyhani and Roy A Jensen

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:15

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  35. Content type: Research article

    The observation of multiple genetic markers in situ by optical microscopy and their relevance to the study of three-dimensional (3D) chromosomal organization in the nucleus have been greatly developed in the last...

    Authors: Tony Chih Yuan Chuang, Sharareh Moshir, Yuval Garini, Alice Ya-Chun Chuang, Ian T Young, Bart Vermolen, Richard van den Doel, Virginie Mougey, Mathilde Perrin, Martina Braun, Paul Donald Kerr, Thierry Fest, Petra Boukamp and Sabine Mai

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:12

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  36. Content type: Research article

    DNA polymerase ε (Pol ε) is essential for S-phase replication, DNA damage repair and checkpoint control in yeast. A pol2-Y831A mutation leading to a tyrosine to alanine change in the Pol ε active site does not ca...

    Authors: Youri I Pavlov, Satoko Maki, Hisaji Maki and Thomas A Kunkel

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:11

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Biology 2007 5:27

  37. Content type: Research article

    The 5' end of the Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) RNA around the primer-binding site forms a series of RNA secondary stem/loop structures (U5-IR stem, TψC interaction region, U5-leader stem) that are required for eff...

    Authors: Michael Johnson, Shannon Morris, Aiping Chen, Ed Stavnezer and Jonathan Leis

    Citation: BMC Biology 2004 2:8

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