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  1. Endothelial cell-cell junctions maintain endothelial integrity and regulate vascular morphogenesis and homeostasis. Cell-cell junctions are usually depicted with a linear morphology along the boundaries betwee...

    Authors: Jaime Millán, Robert J Cain, Natalia Reglero-Real, Carolina Bigarella, Beatriz Marcos-Ramiro, Laura Fernández-Martín, Isabel Correas and Anne J Ridley

    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:11

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Surveys of ontogenetic development of hearing and sound production in fish are scarce, and the ontogenetic development of acoustic communication has been investigated in only two fish species so far. Studies o...

    Authors: Walter Lechner, Lidia Eva Wysocki and Friedrich Ladich

    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:10

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Brain size is a key adaptive trait. It is often assumed that increasing brain size was a general evolutionary trend in primates, yet recent fossil discoveries have documented brain size decreases in some linea...

    Authors: Stephen H Montgomery, Isabella Capellini, Robert A Barton and Nicholas I Mundy

    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:9

    Content type: Research article

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  4. While bilaterality is a defining characteristic of triploblastic animals, several assemblages have managed to break this symmetry in order to exploit the adaptive peaks garnered through the lateralization of b...

    Authors: Thomas A Stewart and R Craig Albertson

    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:8

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Previous studies have linked neurotrophin receptor-interacting MAGE protein to the bone morphogenic protein signaling pathway and its effect on p38 mediated apoptosis of neural progenitor cells via the XIAP-Ta...

    Authors: Nicholas Matluk, Jennifer A Rochira, Aldona Karaczyn, Tamara Adams and Joseph M Verdi

    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:7

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Folate (vitamin B9) is essential for cellular proliferation as it is involved in the biosynthesis of deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) and s-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). The link between folate depletion and...

    Authors: Gaia Bistulfi, Erika VanDette, Sei-Ichi Matsui and Dominic J Smiraglia

    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:6

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Dedifferentiation occurs naturally in mature cell types during epimorphic regeneration in fish and some amphibians. Dedifferentiation also occurs in the induction of pluripotent stem cells when a set of transc...

    Authors: Bea Christen, Vanesa Robles, Marina Raya, Ida Paramonov and Juan Carlos Izpisúa Belmonte

    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:5

    Content type: Research article

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  8. LIM homeobox (Lhx) transcription factors are unique to the animal lineage and have patterning roles during embryonic development in flies, nematodes and vertebrates, with a conserved role in specifying neurona...

    Authors: Mansi Srivastava, Claire Larroux, Daniel R Lu, Kareshma Mohanty, Jarrod Chapman, Bernard M Degnan and Daniel S Rokhsar

    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:4

    Content type: Research article

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  9. Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups o...

    Authors: Thomas J Givnish

    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:3

    Content type: Commentary

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  10. The transcription/export complex is evolutionarily conserved from yeast to man and is required for coupled transcription elongation and nuclear export of mRNAs. FMIP(Fms interacting protein) is a member of the...

    Authors: Annalisa Mancini, Susanne C Niemann-Seyde, Rüdiger Pankow, Omar El Bounkari, Sabine Klebba-Färber, Alexandra Koch, Ewa Jaworska, Elaine Spooncer, Achim D Gruber, Anthony D Whetton and Teruko Tamura

    Citation: BMC Biology 2010 8:1

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Obesity is a chronic low inflammatory state. In the obesity condition the white adipose tissue (WAT) is massively infiltrated with monocytes/macrophages, and the nature of the signals recruiting these inflamma...

    Authors: Margherita Maffei, Marcella Funicello, Teresa Vottari, Olimpia Gamucci, Mario Costa, Simonetta Lisi, Alessandro Viegi, Osele Ciampi, Giuseppe Bardi, Paolo Vitti, Aldo Pinchera and Ferruccio Santini

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:87

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Within chromatin, the histone variant H2A.Z plays a role in many diverse nuclear processes including transcription, preventing the spread of heterochromatin and epigenetic transcriptional memory. The molecular...

    Authors: Deanna Dryhurst, Toyotaka Ishibashi, Kristie L Rose, José M Eirín-López, Darin McDonald, Begonia Silva-Moreno, Nik Veldhoen, Caren C Helbing, Michael J Hendzel, Jeffrey Shabanowitz, Donald F Hunt and Juan Ausió

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:86

    Content type: Research article

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  13. The dystrophin glycoprotein complex is disrupted in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and many other neuromuscular diseases. The principal heterodimeric partner of dystrophin at the heart of the dystrophin glycoprot...

    Authors: Sabrina V Böhm, Panayiotis Constantinou, Sipin Tan, Hong Jin and Roland G Roberts

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:85

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Molecular evolutionary studies share the common goal of elucidating historical relationships, and the common challenge of adequately sampling taxa and characters. Particularly at low taxonomic levels, recent d...

    Authors: Matthew Parks, Richard Cronn and Aaron Liston

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:84

    Content type: Research article

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  15. Following amputation, urodele salamander limbs reprogram somatic cells to form a blastema that self-organizes into the missing limb parts to restore the structure and function of the limb. To help understand t...

    Authors: Nandini Rao, Deepali Jhamb, Derek J Milner, Bingbing Li, Fengyu Song, Mu Wang, S Randal Voss, Mathew Palakal, Michael W King, Behnaz Saranjami, Holly LD Nye, Jo Ann Cameron and David L Stocum

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:83

    Content type: Research article

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  16. The tendency of animals and plants to independently develop similar features under similar evolutionary pressures - convergence - is a widespread phenomenon in nature. In plants, convergence has been suggested...

    Authors: Alexandre Antonelli

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:82

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Bacteria-triggered signaling events in infected host cells are key elements in shaping the host response to pathogens. Within the eukaryotic cell, signaling complexes are spatially organized. However, the inve...

    Authors: Alexander Buntru, Timo Zimmermann and Christof R Hauck

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:81

    Content type: Methodology article

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  18. Subjective tinnitus is the perception of a sound in the absence of any physical source. It has been shown that tinnitus is associated with hyperactivity of the auditory cortices. Accompanying this hyperactivit...

    Authors: Winfried Schlee, Nadia Mueller, Thomas Hartmann, Julian Keil, Isabel Lorenz and Nathan Weisz

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:80

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Early microbial colonization of the gut reduces the incidence of infectious, inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Recent population studies reveal that childhood hygiene is a significant risk factor for devel...

    Authors: Imke E Mulder, Bettina Schmidt, Christopher R Stokes, Marie Lewis, Mick Bailey, Rustam I Aminov, James I Prosser, Bhupinder P Gill, John R Pluske, Claus-Dieter Mayer, Corran C Musk and Denise Kelly

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:79

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Phylogeographic reconstruction of some bacterial populations is hindered by low diversity coupled with high levels of lateral gene transfer. A comparison of recombination levels and diversity at seven housekee...

    Authors: Talima Pearson, Philip Giffard, Stephen Beckstrom-Sternberg, Raymond Auerbach, Heidie Hornstra, Apichai Tuanyok, Erin P Price, Mindy B Glass, Benjamin Leadem, James S Beckstrom-Sternberg, Gerard J Allan, Jeffrey T Foster, David M Wagner, Richard T Okinaka, Siew Hoon Sim, Ofori Pearson…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:78

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Basoapical polarity in epithelia is critical for proper tissue function, and control of proliferation and survival. Cell culture models that recapitulate epithelial tissue architecture are invaluable to unrave...

    Authors: Cedric Plachot, Lesley S Chaboub, Hibret A Adissu, Lei Wang, Albert Urazaev, Jennifer Sturgis, Elikplimi K Asem and Sophie A Lelièvre

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:77

    Content type: Methodology article

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  22. The signal recognition particle (SRP) receptor plays a vital role in co-translational protein targeting, because it connects the soluble SRP-ribosome-nascent chain complex (SRP-RNCs) to the membrane bound Sec ...

    Authors: Miryana Mircheva, Diana Boy, Benjamin Weiche, Friederike Hucke, Peter Graumann and Hans-Georg Koch

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:76

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Ubiquitin regulates a myriad of important cellular processes through covalent attachment to its substrates. A classic role for ubiquitin is to flag proteins for destruction by the proteasome. Recent studies in...

    Authors: Chang Liu, Dewald van Dyk, Yue Li, Brenda Andrews and Hai Rao

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:75

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Given its sequenced genome and efficient systemic RNA interference response, the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum is a model organism well suited for reverse genetics. Even so, there is a pressing need for fo...

    Authors: Jochen Trauner, Johannes Schinko, Marcé D Lorenzen, Teresa D Shippy, Ernst A Wimmer, Richard W Beeman, Martin Klingler, Gregor Bucher and Susan J Brown

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:73

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Recent advances in sequencing strategies make possible unprecedented depth and scale of sampling for molecular detection of microbial diversity. Two major paradigm-shifting discoveries include the detection of...

    Authors: Thorsten Stoeck, Anke Behnke, Richard Christen, Linda Amaral-Zettler, Maria J Rodriguez-Mora, Andrei Chistoserdov, William Orsi and Virginia P Edgcomb

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:72

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Ants form highly social and cooperative colonies that compete, and often fight, against other such colonies, both intra- and interspecifically. Some invasive ants take sociality to an extreme, forming geograph...

    Authors: Miriam Brandt, Ellen van Wilgenburg, Robert Sulc, Kenneth J Shea and Neil D Tsutsui

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:71

    Content type: Research article

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  27. We have used a genetical genomic approach, in conjunction with phenotypic analysis of alcohol consumption, to identify candidate genes that predispose to varying levels of alcohol intake by HXB/BXH recombinant...

    Authors: Boris Tabakoff, Laura Saba, Morton Printz, Pam Flodman, Colin Hodgkinson, David Goldman, George Koob, Heather N Richardson, Katerina Kechris, Richard L Bell, Norbert Hübner, Matthias Heinig, Michal Pravenec, Jonathan Mangion, Lucie Legault, Maurice Dongier…

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:70

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Different iron transport systems evolved in Gram-negative bacteria during evolution. Most of the transport systems depend on outer membrane localized TonB-dependent transporters (TBDTs), a periplasma-facing To...

    Authors: Oliver Mirus, Sascha Strauss, Kerstin Nicolaisen, Arndt von Haeseler and Enrico Schleiff

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:68

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Understanding stem cell differentiation is essential for the future design of cell therapies. While retinoic acid (RA) is the most potent small molecule enhancer of skeletal myogenesis in stem cells, the stage...

    Authors: Karen AM Kennedy, Tammy Porter, Virja Mehta, Scott D Ryan, Feodor Price, Vian Peshdary, Christina Karamboulas, Josée Savage, Thomas A Drysdale, Shun-Cheng Li, Steffany AL Bennett and Ilona S Skerjanc

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:67

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Clostridium botulinum is a taxonomic designation for at least four diverse species that are defined by the expression of one (monovalent) or two (bivalent) of seven different C. botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs, A-G...

    Authors: Karen K Hill, Gary Xie, Brian T Foley, Theresa J Smith, Amy C Munk, David Bruce, Leonard A Smith, Thomas S Brettin and John C Detter

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:66

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Animals utilize a wide variety of tactics to attract reproductive partners. Behavioral experiments often indicate an important role for visual cues in fish, but their molecular basis remains almost entirely un...

    Authors: Shoji Fukamachi, Masato Kinoshita, Kouichi Aizawa, Shoji Oda, Axel Meyer and Hiroshi Mitani

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:64

    Content type: Research article

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  32. The oncoprotein c-Myc has been intensely studied in breast cancer and mouse mammary tumor models, but relatively little is known about the normal physiological role of c-Myc in the mammary gland. Here we inves...

    Authors: Tina Stoelzle, Patrick Schwarb, Andreas Trumpp and Nancy E Hynes

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:63

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Metastatic neoplasias are characterized by excessive cell proliferation and disruptions to apico-basal cell polarity and tissue architecture. Understanding how alterations in cell polarity can impact upon tumo...

    Authors: Gregory R Leong, Karen R Goulding, Nancy Amin, Helena E Richardson and Anthony M Brumby

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:62

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Morphogenetic events that shape the Drosophila melanogaster embryo are tightly controlled by a genetic program in which specific sets of genes are up-regulated. We used a suppressive subtractive hybridization pro...

    Authors: Alejandro Zúñiga, Christian Hödar, Patricia Hanna, Freddy Ibáñez, Pablo Moreno, Rodrigo Pulgar, Luis Pastenes, Mauricio González and Verónica Cambiazo

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:61

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Mate choice is of central importance to most animals, influencing population structure, speciation, and ultimately the survival of a species. Mating behavior of male brachionid rotifers is triggered by the pro...

    Authors: Terry W Snell, Tonya L Shearer, Hilary A Smith, Julia Kubanek, Kristin E Gribble and David B Mark Welch

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:60

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Transforming growth factor (TGF)β superfamily members transduce signals by oligomerizing two classes of serine/threonine kinase receptors, termed type I and type II. In contrast to the large number of ligands ...

    Authors: Kai Heinecke, Axel Seher, Werner Schmitz, Thomas D Mueller, Walter Sebald and Joachim Nickel

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:59

    Content type: Research article

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  37. The filamentous ascomycete Hypocrea jecorina (anamorph Trichoderma reesei) is primarily known for its efficient enzymatic machinery that it utilizes to decompose cellulosic substrates. Nevertheless, the nature an...

    Authors: Christian Seibel, Gabriela Gremel, Roberto do Nascimento Silva, André Schuster, Christian P Kubicek and Monika Schmoll

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:58

    Content type: Research article

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  38. The tick-borne pathogen Anaplasma marginale, which is endemic worldwide, is the type species of the genus Anaplasma (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae). Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the most important tick...

    Authors: Agustín Estrada-Peña, Victoria Naranjo, Karina Acevedo-Whitehouse, Atilio J Mangold, Katherine M Kocan and José de la Fuente

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:57

    Content type: Research article

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  39. We have recently shown that δ-opioid receptors (DORs) play an important role in neuroprotection from hypoxic injury via the regulation of extracellular signaling-regulated kinase (ERK) and cytochrome c release. S...

    Authors: Yilin Yang, Xiwei Xia, Yi Zhang, Qiang Wang, Lu Li, Guanghua Luo and Ying Xia

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:55

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Wolbachia is an extremely widespread bacterial endosymbiont of arthropods and nematodes that causes a variety of reproductive peculiarities. Parthenogenesis is one such peculiarity but it has been hypothesised t...

    Authors: Nathan Pike and Rachel Kingcombe

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:54

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Mycoheterotrophic plants are considered to associate very specifically with fungi. Mycoheterotrophic orchids are mostly associated with ectomycorrhizal fungi in temperate regions, or with saprobes or parasites...

    Authors: Mélanie Roy, Santi Watthana, Anna Stier, Franck Richard, Suyanee Vessabutr and Marc-André Selosse

    Citation: BMC Biology 2009 7:51

    Content type: Research article

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